Mussolini’s Doctrine of Fascism
Mussolini’s Doctrine of Fascism
According to Mussolini, fascism is a spiritual force that binds together a nation through allegiance to a supreme government. Ideally, it is centered on morality and individualism is strongly opposed. Instead, Fascism advocates for collective responsibility in dealing with national issues of the economy, security, and tradition. Furthermore, the general perception of this movement is that man ought to concentrate all the energy in dealing with the challenges he faces. Therefore, fascism is a philosophical approach to life rather than merely a governance system (Lualdi 235-239). In this regard, an elitist group of individuals is entrusted with the affairs of nations and the citizenry has to submit to authorities on all matters concerning livelihood.
In contrast to the principles of fascism proposed by Mussolini, democracy is purely a system of government in which the people decide on whom to lead them. Hence, the power lies with each individual who is entitled to participate in matters of national culture and development. While fascism overlooks the needs of the individual and collectively offers solutions, a democracy is based upon fulfillment of personal desires in line with a predetermined set of laws and rights. The most pronounced difference between the two systems is that in a democracy, there is no oppression under perfect conditions, while fascism is an authoritarian system under which every individual is denied rights to pursue any personal beliefs.
On the other hand, Mussolini believes that liberalism is founded on equity of all individuals and protection of the rights of the people, which is detrimental to national development. It diverges from fascism in that liberalism supports the formation of civil unions as well as secular governments. Moreover, it advocates for tolerance of personal differences. However, fascism assumes uniformity of people and formation of lobby groups is prohibited. More so, fascism dictates that all ideas must be pooled together for the common good of the nation.
There is a marginal difference between socialism and fascism since they all advocate for strong centralized governance, but Mussolini posits that fascism is superior. Nevertheless, there are significant disparities between their ideals. First, socialist are free to interact globally while fascists are more confined to their states. Secondly, socialists are secular, unlike the fascists who are deeply rooted in religious participation. Finally, while fascism is much about laws and moral traditions, socialism is not conservative.
In light of fascism, all individualistic perception based on materialism as well as innovations was opposed. This is because fascists did not believe in the probability that individuals will have happiness as advocated by economistic literature of 18th century. However, it rejected the sense that individual family will be relieved all its hardship in sometime in future since it opposed that life is continuous and evolution process. Fascists’ perception of life emphasized the significance of the state rather than individuals and accepted individuals as long as their interests are in line with those of the state. Moreover, fascism used individual roles to refute liberalism as it devised the rights of the state as expressing the actual notion of the individual (Lualdi 235-239). This was evidenced in the definition of liberty since the only liberty allowed was that of state and of the individual within the state.
Furthermore, Mussolini’s concept of individualism enhanced the rejection of socialism since no individuals or groups such as political parties, economic unions, and social classes were allowed to form the state. Therefore, oneness within the state, which consolidates classes into a unit economic or ethical reality, was not recognized. Additionally, the concept of individualism was used to hinder democracy, as individuals were first required to form a state, which was considered just as a summation of people forming the majority. In this view, it curtailed democracy by lowering the nation to the equation of majority, which is perceived as a democracy if the quality is considered rather than quantity.
Lualdi, Katharine J. Sources of The Making of the West, Volume II: Since 1500: Peoples and Cultures. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2012. Print