Nursing Curriculum Development
Nursing Curriculum Development
One of the appropriate model to use in the evaluation of the curriculum is the Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) model. This model incorporates the important aspects of any evaluation exercise, and it systematically establishes a matrix of decisions from which the best option is selected. The four components form a cycle based on the planning process, structuring phase, the implementation phase, and a review of decisions and outcomes (Keating, 2011). Once implementation is successful, the effectiveness of the curriculum is evaluated, and either changed, or the process of improvement is effected. This paper looks at the effectiveness of the Context-Input-Process-Product model in improving curriculum study.
The CIPP model is useful in that critical external factors are taken into consideration. Moreover, the relationship between courses is established as well as the relevance of a progress to suit the needs of a job. As clearly stated by Albashiry, Voogt, and Pieters (2015), an effective evaluation model must take into account as many factors as possible as long as they are manageable and deliver the anticipated outcomes with ease of monitoring. With regard to the input process, the objectives of the course are clearly stipulated to find a balance between theory and practice. Moreover, provisions for the necessary equipment and other learning resources are made to ensure a perfect learning condition.
In the process phase of the cycle, the mode of communication and the responses between learners and the instructors is assessed to weed out any potential barriers. The discipline of the involved parties is also taken into account to ensure that seriousness is upheld within the learning process. Lastly, the mode of student evaluation, test intervals, and quality of assessments are the final steps, that is, for the product phase of the cycle.
Information to be used in decision-making is collected through well-structured evaluation forms, interviews, video recording of class sessions, questionnaires, or informal observations. This eliminates the bias associated with using a single form of obtaining evaluation data. However, CIPP model is deemed exclusive to experts only, and ways to incorporate other relevant stakeholders should be identified prior to the exercise.
A needs assessment involves the determination of needs and the best way to address them. The needs may be perceived, expressed, or relative; and if tackled appropriately, the planning process and improvement in training are simplified. According to Nolet, Roberts, Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Roiland, Gullickson, Ryther & Bowers (2015), it is very important to prepare the students mentally for a nursing course by asking them questions that test their perception to the entire undertaking. Some of the fundamental and important questions to include in needs assessment would be: how do you perceive class lectures? This question would be answered on a Likert scale. It would assist in identifying the general attitude of students towards learning in a classroom setup. This would aid in devising appropriate teaching methods to fit the needs of the students. Another question would be; what is your preferred mode of continuous assessment? This is a provocative question whose objective would be to understand the overall opinion of students towards tests. This would form the basis for planning and evaluations by conducting sit-in written tests and online assignments on how to balance preference methods.
Furthermore, the students should respond to “do you find it challenging to participate in class activities?” this question is essential for determining the student’s ability to interact and communication cues. Since nursing is usually a series of interactions and the capability to effectively perceive and disseminate information, new BSN students who respond negatively to this question should be guided through relevant courses to enhance their competence. A vital final query would be “what is your motivation for joining Nursing?” this question would serve the purpose of exposing the driving force for each student. What each of them anticipates achieving by the end of the course will be the ultimate goal of the question.
The students should adopt the cognitive study approach to nursing courses. This is because it is aimed at getting meaningful information from contexts and involves a high level of cognitive ability. Relationships between pieces of knowledge and linking theory to practice are the ultimate objective of this approach. The learner and the tutor are engaged in active interaction with a better understanding of concepts. More so, it is based on inherent motivation and curiosity to discover new forms of knowledge, and cultivating the culture of research. Nursing courses are intended to sharpen the critical thinking skills and find applicability, and therefore other approaches may be viewed as geared towards attaining higher grades, therefore superficially attractive.
The relevant activities to be included in the learning process would include role-play and debates. In role-plays, each student assumes an active role given a certain context. It is intended to develop confidence, improve the communication skills, as well as enhance the manner of interactions. It is also a good way of showing the practical skills attained with respect to specified responses and situations. On the other hand, debates are effective stimulants for critical thinking, keen and impartial analysis of circumstances, and enhanced conflict resolution methods.
Albashiry, N. M., Voogt, S. M., & Pierters, S. M. (2015). Curriculum design practices of a vocational community college in a developing context: Challenges and needs. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 39(2), 1137-1152.
Keating, S. B. (2011). Curriculum development and evaluation in nursing. New York. Springer.
Nolet, K., Roberts, T., Gilmore-Bykovskyi, A., Roiland, R., Gullickson, C., Ryther, B. & Bowers, B.J. (2015). Preparing tomorrow’s nursing home nurses: The Wisconsin long-term care clinical scholars program. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 36(4), 396-415.