Data Analysis, Discussion, Conclusion, and Implications

Data Analysis, Discussion, Conclusion, and Implications.

Data Analysis, Discussion, Conclusion, and Implications

Abstract

Saudi Arabia, like many countries in the world, has been experiencing a revolution regarding learning English as a second language. This is evidenced by a large number of students who have moved to the United States to pursue further studies and English as well. It is in light of this that this research project sought to examine whether gender and length of stay in the United States had an impact on the attitudes towards learning English as a second language among Saudi students. Data was collected from a random sample of 60 Saudi students enrolled in an ESL program at the university. The main research instrument utilized for the research project was a questionnaire that was administered physically and online to the research participants. Graphs and tables were used to present the results obtained after the statistical analysis was conducted. The research revealed that gender did not have a consistent effect on attitude since in some instances attitudes were better among males and in some other cases attitudes were better among females. Nevertheless, the length of stay in the United States was found to have a significant positive impact on the attitudes towards ESL since the longer the students stayed in the United States, the more they were interested in applying the language and making new discoveries.

 

Data Analysis and Discussion

Learners of English as a second language living in the United States apply the literacy skills they get to enhance their daily communication through speaking, writing, and reading. This research study aimed at investigating whether gender and length of stay in the United States have an impact on the attitudes of the Saudi ESL learners towards the language. Data was collected using a questionnaire that was administered physically and online to the sampled study participants. The main variables that were used to classify the responses were gender and length of stay in the United States of America for the sampled Saudi students. The other variables that were considered in the study were whether the students enjoyed learning English, whether they use the language in texting their friends, whether they listen to radio programs broadcasted in English, and whether they like learning new English vocabulary.

Apparently, there was the same number of male and female participants in the survey to ensure gender parity as shown in the graph below:

Figure 1: Pie Chart for Gender

The length of stay in the United States was also analyzed and the results obtained are shown in the graph below:

Figure 2: Length of stay in the United States

The largest proportion of those sampled had lived in the United States for more than two years while the least proportion had lived there for six months or less.

With regard to the enjoyment of learning English as a second language, it was clear that of the 60 participants studied, 67.67 percent always enjoyed learning the language, 30 percent enjoyed sometimes and only 3.33 percent never enjoyed the lessons. Of those who always enjoyed, 36 percent were female and 30 percent were male. The proportion of those who never enjoyed was equal to 1.67 percent and those who sometimes enjoyed the lessons were 11.67 percent female and 18.33 percent male. These results are summarized in the table below:

Table 1: I enjoy learning English in general (by gender)

Attitude RatingGrand Total
Gender AlwaysNeverSometimes
Female36.67%1.67%11.67%50.00%
Male30.00%1.67%18.33%50.00%
Grand Total66.67%3.33%30.00%100.00%

 

The enjoyment was also examined through the length of stay in the United States. It was clear that as the length of stay increased, it was likely that the students would enjoy learning the language more. This is because while 3.33 percent of those who stayed in the USA for at most 6 months always enjoyed, 20 percent of those who had stayed always did, and 43.33 percent of those who had stayed for more than 2 years always did. However, while none of those who had spent less than two years in the USAnever enjoyed learning English, 3.33 percent of those who had lived there for over 2 years never enjoyed. This is exhibited in the table below:

Table 2: I enjoy learning English in general (by length of stay in the USA)

Attitude RatingGrand Total
Length of Stay in the USAAlwaysNeverSometimes
0-6 months3.33%0.00%0.00%3.33%
7 months- 2 years20.00%0.00%5.00%25.00%
More than 2 years43.33%3.33%25.00%71.67%
Grand Total66.67%3.33%30.00%100.00%

 

The another aspect of attitude that was considered is whether the Saudi ESL students used English in chatting with their through text messages. 10.17 percent of the females compared to 1.69 percent of the males said they always did. The same scenario is exhibited for those who never do since 16.95 percent of females compared to 5.08 percent of the males said they never did. This is shown in table 3 below:

Table 3: I text my friends in English (be gender)

Attitude RatingGrand Total
GenderAlwaysNeverSometimes
Female10.17%16.95%23.73%50.85%
Male1.69%5.08%42.37%49.15%
Grand Total11.86%22.03%66.10%100.00%

 

With regard to the length of stay in the United States, it emerged that all the participants who had been in the United States for a period not exceeding 6 months only used English in text messages sometimes. However, 8.47 percent of those who had been had been in the United States for a period of7 months and 2 years always used English in their text messages compared to 3.39 percent of those who have been in the United States for at least two years as shown in table 4 below.

Table 4: I text my friends in English (by length of stay in the USA)

Attitude RatingGrand Total
Length of Stay in the USAAlwaysNeverSometimes
0-6 months0.00%0.00%3.39%3.39%
7 months- 2 years8.47%8.47%8.47%25.42%
More than 2 years3.39%13.56%54.24%71.19%
Grand Total11.86%22.03%66.10%100.00%

 

The another variable that was studied was whether the Saudi ESL students listened to English radio programs. Table 5 below indicates that while 28.33 percent of the males always listened, only 21.67 percent of the females did. It was also clear that the proportion of those who never listened to the English radio programs was the same across the gender divide. However, there were more female students (25 percent)who reported listening to the radio programs compared to 18.33 percent of the male students.

Table 5: I enjoy listening to the English channel radio programs (by gender)

Attitude RatingGrand Total
Gender AlwaysNeverSometimes
Female21.67%3.33%25.00%50.00%
Male28.33%3.33%18.33%50.00%
Grand Total50.00%6.67%43.33%100.00%

 

The same aspect was also examined using a length of stay in the United States as a factor. It emerged that across the three categories of always, never, and sometimes, as the length of stay increased, the higher the proportions were. For instance, for Alway’s category, 1.67 percent of respondents had a period of at most 6 months, 16.67 has a period of 1 months to 2 years while 31.67 percent had resided in the United States for more than 2 years.

Table 6: I enjoy listening to the English channel radio programs (by length of stay in the USA)

Attitude RatingGrand Total
Length of Stay in the USAAlwaysNeverSometimes
0-6 months1.67%0.00%1.67%3.33%
7 months- 2 years16.67%1.67%6.67%25.00%
More than 2 years31.67%5.00%35.00%71.67%
Grand Total50.00%6.67%43.33%100.00%

 

Finally, it was imperative to find out whether the Saudi ESL students were interested in learning new English vocabulary in the course of their studies. Table 7 below indicates that 43.33 percent of the males were always interested while 31.67 percent of their female counterparts were interested. It was also interesting to learn that none of the male students said they were never interested in learning new English vocabulary while 6.67 percent of the females did. However, more female students (11.67 percent) were sometimes interested in learning new English vocabulary compared to 6.67 percent of the males who were sometimes interested.

 

Table 7: I like to learn new English vocabulary (by gender)

Attitude RatingGrand Total
Gender AlwaysNeverSometimes
Female31.67%6.67%11.67%50.00%
Male43.33%0.00%6.67%50.00%
Grand Total75.00%6.67%18.33%100.00%

 

The issue of vocabulary as a measure of attitude towards learning English as a second language was also examined with respect to the length of stay in the United States. Table 8 below shows that the proportions for each of the categories of attitude rating increased as the length of stay in the USA increased. For instance, 3.33 percent of those who had lived in the United States for at most 6 months were always interested in learning new English vocabulary while 53.33 percent of those who had lived for more than 2 years were interested. Therefore, there is some evidence that as the length of stay in the United States increases, it is likely that a Saudi ESL student would be willing to learn more English vocabulary.

Table 8: I like to learn new English vocabulary (by length of stay in the USA)

Attitude RatingGrand Total
Length of Stay in the USAAlwaysNeverSometimes
0-6 months3.33%0.00%0.00%3.33%
7 months- 2 years18.33%1.67%5.00%25.00%
More than 2 years53.33%5.00%13.33%71.67%
Grand Total75.00%6.67%18.33%100.00%

 

Conclusion and Implications

The current research study was conducted with the aim of examining whether gender and the length of stay in the United States for Saudi students affect their attitudes towards learning English as a second language. In order to achieve the set objective, there were two main research questions that were used, that is, “Does gender of Saudi students has an effect on their attitudes toward English?” and “Does length of stay of Saudi students has an effect on their attitudes toward English?” Apparently, these research questions were addressed through descriptive analysis of four variables of interest, that is, whether the students enjoyed learning English, whether they use the language in texting their friends, whether they listen to radio programs broadcasted in English, and whether they like learning new English vocabulary.

The results indicated that there was no absolute pattern displayed that can be used to conclude with certainty that female students have better attitudes towards learning compared to the male students. This is because the proportions of males or females are not consistently higher of lower compared to the opposite gender for all the variables. For instance, more female students were likely to always enjoy learning English in general and always text their friends in English. However, a converse scenario is witnessed in cases of listening to English radio programs and interest in learning new English vocabulary.

The results also indicate that it is almost certain that the length of stay has a significant positive impact on the attitudes towards learning English as a second language among Saudi students. This is because for all the four variables included for analysis by gender and length of stay in the United States;those who have stayed for less than 6 months have a lower rating, hence, worse attitudes compared to those who have resided in the USA for a period exceeding 2 years. This was experienced in all the categories of attitude rating. As such, it would be prudent to conclude that gender has a moderate effect on attitudes that is bound to change while the length of stay has a strong effect on the attitudes of ESL students.

Nevertheless, the current research study had some hurdles. For instance, the data analysis was only based on the descriptive aspect but no inferential test was conducted.  Additionally, the research utilized a relatively smaller sample hence the results may not be generalized to Saudi ESL students outside the university. Therefore, it would be prudent that the future studies based on this research be conducted using inferential statistics to measure the actual effect sizes of gender and length of stay on the attitudes towards learning ESL as a second language. Additionally, it would be important that the research is conducted using students from a variety of institutions to ensure more reliable results are obtained.

 

For a Customized Paper on the above or Related Topic, Place Your Order Now!

Data Analysis, Discussion, Conclusion, and Implications

Leave a Reply