Paradigm Shifts in Science and Society.
Paradigm Shifts in Science and Society
A paradigm shift is a fundamental change whereby concepts and experimental practices and ways of doing things in scientific discipline. The radical change replaces the former way of thinking. A paradigm shift comes about when a new concept replaces an old one and all people who are in the discipline that uses that concept accepts it.
Certain changes have to happen for a paradigm shift to occur. When a paradigm shift occurs, we understand effects in a changed standpoint since we emphasis on dissimilar aspects of that certain marvels in our lives. Implementing change is difficult but for a paradigm shift to occur people have to change from one concept to another. For a paradigm shift to occur, new ideas have to come up even those that were discarded previously and are tried. Also, for it to be considered a paradigm shift the new paradigm has to be better than the previous and not just different from it. The paradigm should be able to give a clear explanation of the situation it is meant to address, and it should be able to uncover errors of the previous paradigm. Research done on concepts that people feel are misguided or are a dead end often triggers a paradigm shift as the research evolves into a new way of thinking.
Over the years, paradigms have been witnessed both in the society and in science. The Keynesian revolution is one of the most famous paradigm shifts in macroeconomics. The Keynesian revolution is referred to as a paradigm shift because it gave a different explanation of the factors that determined unemployment, which was different from the previous theories. The Keynesian revolution explained that demand and not supply was the main driving factor in determining the levels of employment as opposed to the neoclassical economics, which argued full employment equilibrium, would exist in a free market with no need of government intervention unless special conditions prevailed. This theory saw a great change after the economy depression, and it influenced a lot of economic decision since then.
The Keynesian revolution paradigm brought about many changes. Many governments that relied on the neoclassical economics decided to shift and adopt the new theory. This saw many governments intervening in the employment sector to alleviate levels of unemployment. It also influenced the decision maker of central banks, governments, and global institutions. The revolution also gave government’s justification for policies that were meant to intervene in country economic affairs. The Keynesian theory led to another major shift in macroeconomics, which was referred to s the monetarism. This shift led to the Keynesian theory adopting principles it had previously rejected such as the quantity theory of money and Philips curve.
For science and society to evolve, there is a need for many paradigm shifts. They ensure that the process of evolution does not stagnate and each day researchers are working to see that they give us new theories to explain different dimension of our lives. Discoveries need to be challenged and worked on so as there are minimal errors in theory, to ensure that theories do not leave any questions unanswered, and neither are there wide gaps that need to be filled.
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