Describe how natural law stems from Cicero’s Stoicism

Describe how natural law stems from Cicero’s Stoicism

Answer each of the following questions as comprehensively as possible and in your own words, supporting your answers with the readings (citing where appropriate). Write in complete sentences.

Type your answer below each prompt.

1. Describe how natural law stems from Cicero’s Stoicism. Where did Cicero believe we find moral guidance? Where did he say that we do not need to look?

2. Describe 3 different realms of law according to Roman law, and give 1 example of each kind. Do not use the examples used in the book.

3. Describe Aquinas’s views of natural law and human law. Provide 1 example of each kind. Do not use the examples used in the book.

4. Consider Aquinas’s synderesis principle. Imagine that you are driving a convertible late at night and see a car stalled on the side of the road. You stop at a stop sign and the driver of the other car asks you to call for help when you get home (Suppose you can call for help in less than a minute and that the call will be free.). You think of your option to call for help, but you also realize that you can lie to him and say that you will call when in actuality you won’t do anything else at all. What would the synderesis principle have you do? Why? What would the synderesis principle not have you do? Why?

5. Why does Hugo Grotius care so much about sociability? Suppose that you have a friend who starts lots of physical fights. Imagine that your friend hits people at work and school when she gets mad. What would Grotius think of this? How would he reach his judgment?

6. What would Thomas Hobbes think of a violent person like the one described in 5.? Explain how this kind of violence would affect a person’s self-preservation. But, for problem 6., imagine that your violent friend is also bad at fighting, that she usually gets injured after she starts fights and sometimes get arrested.

7. Hume says that “We cannot derive ought from is.” What does he mean? How is this supposed to be a problem for natural law theories?

For problems 8. – 10., suppose you have a doctor friend who volunteers at a homeless shelter in his neighborhood. Imagine that he donates $200 a month to the shelter, and each weekend he spends 4 hours helping people by providing free medical care.

8. What would Aquinas think of your friend’s actions? Is your friend acting morally according to Aquinas’s theory? Explain.

9. What would Grotius think of your friend’s behavior?  Is your friend acting morally according to Grotius’s theory? Explain.

10. What would Hobbes think of your friend’s behavior?  Is your friend acting morally according to Hobbes’s theory? Explain.

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