Validation of a cultural cancer screening scale for mammogram utilization in a sample of African American women. Cancer Nursing
cultural cancer screening scale for mammogram utilization
Diagnostic Tests: Mammography
Mammography is an effective diagnostic test that can help practitioners identify breast cancer at an early stage (Jerome-D’Emilia & Chittams, 2015). Typically, a mammogram is a series of x-ray images capable of detecting tumors too small to be palpated as well as calcium microcalcifications that are associated with breast cancer growth (National Cancer Institute, 2016). Screening mammograms are performed routinely and diagnostic mammograms, specific targeted imaging, are used when changes are identified on screening exams or when visibility is compromised, for example with breast implants (National Cancer Institute, 2016).
It is important to evaluate the validity and reliability of important screening tests like mammography to ensure proper screening and early diagnosis and treatment in affected patients. This early detection allows for a greater array of treatment options and an improved overall prognosis (Jerome-D’Emilia & Chittams, 2015). The reliability and validity of the mammogram increases when used in accordance to recommendations, for instance, in patients over the age of 30, as younger women have increased breast density that affects the diagnostic value (Dains, Baumann, & Scheibel, 2016). In addition, for best results, it is important to adhere to regularly scheduled mammograms, typically done annually for women over the age of 40 (National Cancer Institute, 2016). The National Health Service Breast Screening Programme has developed national guidelines to standardize image assessments and screening programs (Hill & Robinson, 2015). The Breast Imaging Reporting and Database System provides radiologists a uniform way to describe and report findings from mammograms, which helps physicians to appropriately coordinate necessary plans of care (National Cancer Institute, 2016).
At times, mammogram imaging can lead to false-positive results, when radiologists identify abnormalities without the presence of cancer. This can result in over treatment with follow up diagnostic mammograms, ultrasounds, and biopsies to rule out findings (National Cancer Institute, 2016). Predictive values can change if screening is not done properly, and Taylor et al. describes breast positioning as being the most important factor in producing quality mammography images (2017). Ensuring that diagnostic tests provide valuable, accurate, and useful information is key to preventative health care services and early management and treatment of identified disease processes.
Jerome-D’Emilia, B., & Chittams, J. (2015). Validation of a cultural cancer screening scale for mammogram utilization in a sample of African American women. Cancer Nursing, 38(2), 83-88. Retrieved from
National Cancer Institute. (2016). Mammograms. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/mammograms-fact-sheet
Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2016). Advanced health assessment and clinical diagnosis in primary care (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
Hill, C., & Robinson, L. (2015). Mammography image assessment; validity and reliability of current scheme. Radiography, 21, 304-307. Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login
Taylor, K., Parashar, D., Bouverat, G., Poulos, A., Gullien, R., Stewart, E., & … Wallis, M. (2017). Mammographic image quality in relation to positioning of the breast: A multicentre international evaluation of the
assessment systems currently used, to provide an evidence base for establishing a standardised method of assessment. Radiography, 23(4), 343-349. Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login