Florida Maternity Leave

Florida Maternity Leave

Dustmann and Schönberg (2012) define maternity leave as the period that an employee temporary leave the work before and after childbirth. The significant for such leave cannot be ignored and should be granted accordingly by both profitable and non-profit organizations. Maternity leave are vital for the opportunities of a smooth transition period that help the employed woman to incorporate the obligations of a mother. Ultimately, maternity leave have positive social and economic implications. This leave can be paid or unpaid. Most nations across the world have policies that mandate employers to offer paid maternity leave to their employees. Note that, the US is the only developed nation that lacks paid parental leave. According to Dustmann and Schönberg (2012), it is vital to adopt a paid maternity leave as it fosters the overall well-being of the society. Fortunately, some states in the US have gone beyond the Family Medical Leave Act and have enacted policies that guarantee paid maternity leave. Such states include New Jersey and California, but some states like Florida are yet to implement such policies. This essay presents a literature review on the maternity leave of non-profit organizations in Florida State.

According to Baker and Milligan (2008), America is the only developed State that lacks compulsory paid parental leave for the laborers. However, some states such as California and New Jersey mandates non-profit organizations to pay their employees during maternity leave, but this is not the case with the Florida state. Research conducted by Baker and Milligan (2008) shows that since non-profits companies do not provide paid maternity leave, workers rely on a combination of vacation, sick leave, personal days and short-term disability to take “time off” to deliver newborn and then take care for them. The research also indicates another option that employees rely on; take-offs unpaid leave granted under the Family and Medical Leave Act. This Act suggests that if one is employed in a company with fifty or more workers, they are entitled up to three months of unpaid leave annually under the FMLA to give birth and take care for their newborns. Specifically, in Florida, one is entitled to six months of unpaid maternity leave for either newly adopted or newborn infant or to take care for one’s spouse for disabilities associated with pregnancy or child delivery.

In her article, Rossin (2011) examines the impacts of unpaid maternity leave in non-profitable organizations. Most specifically she focuses on the provisions of the 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) on the birth of infants and their wellbeing status in the US.  She employed a variation in pre-FMLA parental leave policies all through the counties and variations in which FMLA policies cover non-profitable organizations. Utilizing the Vital Statistics data and difference-in-difference-in-difference approach, the study found out that maternity leave has a positive outcome on birth weight (Hawley et al., 2014). Moreover, the research found out that maternity leave helps to reduce the child mortality rate for kids of schooling and employed parents who are in a position to constructively use their maternity leave. This research relates to the topic at hand because its findings are robust to the incorporation of various measures for the kids, state traits, maternal, and state-year interactions among other distinct specifications.

Research conducted by Blau and Kahn (2013) identified how some organizations provide maternity leave to their employees. The research discovered that most non-profit organizations offer workers with maternity leave and mandates pay during these periods. Besides, the research found that the maternity leave usually has diverse effects on labor supply for the entire nation. Maternity leave in some states such as Florida is a basic entitlement that each employee qualifies on the first day of employment. The study as well found that by providing workers with the right to their employment back after taking the maternity leave raises the employment prospects of those who have left the labor force after giving birth.

The number of concerns regarding the effects of maternity leave on the non-profit organization has risen in the recent decades. Chinelo et al. researched to investigate the impact of parental leave duration and time of coming back to work. The researcher used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. The findings connect maternity leave with advantages of breastfeeding and maternal health for the newborns. Moreover, the study identified economic advantages associated with maternity leave. In acknowledgment for the benefits attributed to maternity leave, the American Academy of Pediatrics broadly encourages non-profit organizations specifically in Florida to grant the pregnant women the right to maternity for them to have humble time to give birth to newborns and offer parental care for up to the 12 weeks provided for under the FMLA provisions. The study shows that many women opt not to take maternity leave in Non-profit organizations due to lack of supportive work environments such as paid maternity leave and provision of lactational resources. This study is deemed relevant to the research at hand because it highlights some effects of maternity leave on non-profit organizations.

According to Dahl et al. (2016), the paid parental leave has attracted anonymous salience over the past few years as parents have constantly joined the labor force. In their study, Dahl et al. (2016) examined the case for paid parental leave. The study focused on the mother’s response to a sequence of policy reforms in the United States specifically in the California States where they have gone far beyond the FMLA policy that guarantees up to 12 weeks unpaid maternity leave for employees working in a company with more than fifty employees (Rossin, 2011).  The research found that the reforms implemented by such states have an impact on the amount of the time spent out of work by mothers taking maternity leave versus work by roughly the added number of weeks permitted. In other words, the policy caused an increment in time spent by mothers at home after birth, with no reduction in their income. Again, the study revealed that paid maternity leave in non-profit organizations have negative redistribution properties. Lastly, the researchers discovered that guaranteed paid maternity leave have an insignificant effect on mothers’ future tax benefits and payment receipts. Based on this fact, the huge increment in public spending on maternity leave implies a substantial increment in taxes, at a cost to economic efficiency (Hawley et al., 2014). Generally, the research found paid maternity leave to be costly, had no anticipatable impacts on outcomes and diverse redistribution properties. The findings presented in this article are relevant to the research topic because they have significant implications for states that are considering reducing or increasing the duration of paid leave.

The author of the article “Maternity management in SMEs: a trans-disciplinary review and research agenda” indicates that non-profit making organizations represent the largest share in the businesses field as it represents about 95% of the total businesses globally (Stumbitz, Lewis & Rouse, 2018). Most employees in these organizations are women who always request for maternity leave on time to time basis. The author indicates that the government regulates maternity leave, but those involved lack the evidence to control the complicated issues affecting maternity leave in nonprofit organizations. Stumbitz et al. (2018) indicate that even if maternity leave are supposed to be paid, most nonprofit making organizations do not pay women for all the months they go for maternity leave. This study discovered that Florida is one of the states where maternity leave are not paid for but only when the employers opt to pay. The research also discovered that maternity leave are a right for any woman, but the length and payment benefits vary with the non-profit organizations’ rules and regulation and agreements in employment contracts signed by employees during employment (Stumbitz et al., 2018). The result of the study indicated that after maternity leave women often feel undervalued and sidelined. This study relates to this research on maternity leave in non-profit making organizations as it provides the information needed such as research methodology and design that may be used during the study.

Ganley’s study tries to discuss the reasons why most women fail to participate in the workplace after they get their maternity leave. Ganley argues that women especially mothers drop out of work during maternity due to lack of national and states policies that support them. The study indicates that most economic developed states like California have gone ahead to implement and expand policies regarding maternity leave for women in non-profit making organizations (Ganley, 2016). The study also indicates that most women desire to curtail their activities outside their home where they either opt not to go back to work after the maternity leave and if they return they opt to work on part-time basis. This has lead Florida to be among the states that are having few women at the labor force. The result of this study indicated that about 10% of highly educated women including those who spend four and more years in college are opting not to work anymore after having their children. This is because of increased responsibilities and lack of strength as they used to be before maternity leave. Also, they fail to come back because they have to take on active roles duties to meet work demands and family responsibilities (Ganley, 2016). The author concludes by indicating that working mothers in non-profit organizations require resources that would increase motivation to work after maternity leave (Ganley, 2016). Another finding is that personal resources are allocated unfairly to different organizations by the national government hence making it difficult for women in a non-profit organization to be paid for maternity leave. The research relates to this study as it will help the researcher to determine why most educated women are leaving their employment opportunities after maternity leave.

The study by Buzzanell and Liu (2009) presents examples of women in a non-profit organization who feel as if they did not have proper negotiations during pregnancy. Due to improper negotiations, women feel weak after maternity leave as they do not have finances to help them eat well and regain the strength that will enable them to work. The authors indicate that maternity leave functions as gendered management of conflicts and a strategy used by most organizations to make women bodies generally suspicious in comparison to the normal employees’ norms (Buzzanell & Liu, 2009). This study indicates that close interpersonal connections in non-profit making organizations make women feel more able and free to negotiate leave arrangements with the top leadership, but these leave negotiations are not affordable to most non-profit making organizations; most leave are not paid. The authors go on to give an important example that shows how dynamic abilities may emerge from maternal employees. The example indicates that a pregnant worker is capable of using her managerial skills and negotiation experience to make mutual changes by being firm on her individual goals and ensuring that she caters for business requirements hence resulting to mutually important leave arrangements (Buzzanell & Liu, 2009). The results of this study indicated that maternity leave are awarded to women, and in return, the duties handled by women are distributed among the remaining employees. But the distribution of these roles varies regarding woman’s role, resources, organizational culture and status that support workers in making dynamic abilities while responding to maternity leave. Other results indicate that non-profit making organizations feel the pressure of maternity leave, even managers resents and fears the expenses that the organizations incur when managing maternity leave.

Another study by Brugiavini, Pasini, and Trevisan (2013) focuses on both employees and employer aspects and gives a significant insight into the context depending on the non-profit making organization management of maternity leave. The researchers indicated that before some states made it compulsory for maternity leave to be paid no employer provided payment on maternity leave as this was regarded as a threat in a competitive market. They indicated that support was directed to mutual adjustment to facilitate unpaid leave and flexibility on duties to others even when a person goes for leave. It also allowed those from maternity leave to go back to work easily and adopt the working conditions easily (Brugiavini et al., 2013). The results of this study indicated that maternity leave in non-profit making organizations are awarded, but proper arrangements have to be made within the organization. The research relates to this studytopic as it shows the necessary arrangements that are required to be made before a woman goes for leave.

Research by Gatrell (2011) indicate that maternity leave is a right for all pregnant women in non-profit making organization, but a person has to inform the management in advance for proper arrangements to be made. However, in some organization managers view maternity leave as troublesome and this makes employees worried to announce their pregnancy status to their managers. The results of this study indicate that managers view maternity leave as unaffordable. It also found that women fear to state their pregnancy status as they fear comments from colleagues. The research is significant as it opens up the truth that may be helpful in this study.

In conclusion, the findings presented in this literature review portrays the United States as a unique country as it is only the developed country that does not guarantee paid maternity leave for mothers to care for their newborns. Several states including California mandate at least partial payment for mothers on maternity leave. Note that no federal law guarantees it. Unfortunately, Florida is yet to guarantee such benefits to employed mothers who temporarily quit the work during and after birth. Most of the non-profit organizations in Florida deem the policy of granting mothers paid maternity leave as an expensive and unsustainable initiative. This study is deemed relevant to the study at hand because it highlights some effects of maternity leave on non-profit organization and it shows how non-profit organizations view paid or unpaid maternity leave.

 

 

References

Baker, M., & Milligan, K. (2008). Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: Evidence from maternity leave mandates. Journal of Health Economics27(4), 871-887.

Blau, F. D., & Kahn, L. M. (2013). Female labor supply: Why is the United States falling behind? American Economic Review, 103(3), 251-56.

Brugiavini, A., Pasini, G., and Trevisan, E. (2013). The direct impact of maternity benefits on leave-taking: Evidence from complete fertility histories. Advances in Life Course Research, 18, pp. 46–67.

Buzzanell, P. and Liu, M. (2009). It’s ‘give and take’: Maternity leave as a conflict management process. Human Relations, 60, pp. 463–495.

Dahl, G. B., Løken, K. V., Mogstad, M., & Salvanes, K. V. (2016). What is the case for paid maternity leave? Review of Economics and Statistics, 98(4), 655-670.

Dustmann, C., & Schönberg, U. (2012). Expansions in maternity leave coverage and children’s long-term outcomes. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics4(3), 190-224.

Ganley, J. B. G. (2016). Resources necessary for working mothers in nonprofit social services organizations to successfully balance the demands of work and family roles: A Delphi study (Doctoral dissertation, University of La Verne).

Gatrell, C. (2011). Managing the maternal body: a comprehensive review and transdisciplinary analysis. International Journal of Management Reviews, 13, pp. 97–112.

Hawley, G., Janamian, T., Jackson, C., & Wilkinson, S. A. (2014). In a maternity shared-care environment, what do we know about the paper hand-held and electronic health Record: A systematic literature review. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth14(1), 52.

Ogbuanu, C., Glover, S., Probst, J., Liu, J., & Hussey, J. (2011). The effect of maternity leave length and time of return to work on breastfeeding. Pediatrics, peds-2010.

Rossin, M. (2011). The effects of maternity leave on children’s birth and infant health outcomes in the United States. Journal of Health Economics, 30(2), 221-239.

Stumbitz, B., Lewis, S., & Rouse, J. (2018). Maternity management in SMEs: A transdisciplinary review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 20(2), 500-522.

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