Gender Inequality Impacting the Development of Indian Women

Gender Inequality Impacting the Development of Indian Women

Your paper should be a minimum of 8 pages (not including bibliography), double-spaced and paginated with a clear font.  You need to submit a standard bibliography along with your paper; you do NOT need to submit an annotated bibliography.

  1. Introduction

What is the problem or topic you wish to investigate and what is its relevance to this class? How does it relate to gender and development?  How will you approach this research? Why is this of interest to you and why should we be interested in this topic? Your introduction should briefly outline/summarize your thesis.  Feel free to begin your paper with a clincher–an interesting fact, personal anecdote, relevant quote, etc.

  1. Body

Background, historical context, main points of the paper. Give strong examples, details and explanations to support each main point. Use graphs, charts, tables.

  • The body of the paper is where you provide support for the main claim or thesis statement that you declare in your introduction.
  • Use strong evidence from sources that support the main points and also be sure to address the counter-argument.
  • You need to show that your thesis is convincing and that you have not simply expressed your opinions, but rather backed it with sound research.
  • Feel free to back up research/analysis/findings with tables, charts or other relevant visuals.
  • Be sure that your body is not simply a narrative description but analytical.
  1. Conclusion

Restate your thesis and summarize each point and end with a strong clincher statement or final sentence that ties the whole point of the paper together.

  1. Bibliography
  • Be sure to cite sources when you refer to original work, numbers, graphs (use whatever style you wish—footnotes, endnotes, etc).  All quoted material or source of information and ideas, if from another, must be identified and be attributed to that source.
  • If you have a non-English source, cite its reference in English and include an English abstract.
  • The Internet: Verify that web-based sources follow academic source guidelines before using them in academic assignments.
  • The bibliography should follow a standard style (MLA, APA, etc), it should be single spaced and not annotated. There is no limit on numbers of bibliographic citations, but please include at least 7 academic citations. In addition to academic citations, you are welcome to also add non-academic references in your bibliography if you wish (newspaper articles, fact sheets, etc).
  • Bibliography should be in alphabetical order.

Please be sure that your paper is edited to catch grammar and punctuation errors

 

 

 

For me: While good you have narrowed your thesis and chosen a particular country, your thesis is still very broad you will want to narrow down to the specific areas of development and how gender inequities in India are hindering these areas. Economic development and poverty are also far too large. Recommend you choose one particular focus and develop your final paper. Extremely detailed abstracts, but was was not immediately clear was the direct relationship to your thesis. Reducing scope will be help address this too

 

Gender Inequality Impacting the Development of Indian Women

Abstract

Discrimination is a phenomenon that has been in existence in human society for many years. For a long time, India has always been referred to as a male dominated society. Apart from that, gender discrimination is customized habitually. This has made the society to become patriarchal, and now women are forced to depend on men when it comes to most things.  About a half of the population in the country is composed of women. Job, wage, and education discrimination have prevented women from taking advantage of the opportunities that have been brought by economic development. Men have dominated, oppressed, exploited women thanks to the patriarchal system. This system finds its sanction and validity in the Indian religious beliefs.Due to gender inequality in India, there are certain positions that cannot be occupied by women in organizations and in the society. Also, the wages being paid by employers to both men and women is not the same. These parties may be doing the same work, but the male counterparts will receive more income compared to women. Apart from being given low wages, the women are also given only jobs that require low skills. This is an indication that job places are not benefiting both these parties equally. Women have been forced to resort to low paying jobs, such as domestic services. Currently, various parts of the world are experiencing economic development, which also impacts most people positively. Rapid urbanization in India has not yet encouraged many women to join the country’s labor force. This problem is even evident in rural areas, where rural jobs have been decreasing. As a result of this, very few rural women have had the opportunity to transition and work in urban areas. This paper has the aim of determining whether gender inequality in India is negatively affecting the development of women. Therefore, the research question that will guide this paper is, “Does gender inequality hinder the development of women in India?

 

 

Annotated bibliography

Sivakumar, Marimuthu. “Gender Discrimination and Women’s Development in India.” (2008).

            This article by Sivakumar studied gender discrimination in India, its different forms, causes, and how it affects the development of women. The author argues that the only victims of gender discrimination are women. Out of the total population, females are about 50 percent. However, their representation in the public life is very low. Some of the causes of gender discrimination discussed by the author are religious beliefs, caste, educational backwardness, culture, race, customs and beliefs, low income, the name of family history, attitude, family situation, and unemployment. After reviewing already published materials on gender discrimination in India, the author concludes that believing the abilities of women and recognizing their rights is important when it comes to the development of women and empowerment. Women are very important when it comes to development. The society or nation that does not include the participation of women will not attain development. If gender discrimination is eliminated, then women will be able to give all their potentials, knowledge, and skills, which are important for developing the family as well as the nation as a whole. This article is relevant to this study. This is because it is based on gender inequality in India. It will provide adequate information supporting how the inequality issue hinders the development of women in the country.

Razvi, Meena, and Gene L. Roth. “Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India.” Online Submission (2004).

Razvi and Roth’s article is relevant to this study because it is based on themes that negatively impact the socio-economic of women in India. According to the authors, gender discrimination is prevalent in India and the problem impact the socio-economic development of women. The recurrent themes that the authors study are the areas of focus that the Indian non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the government, and other human rights organizations try to address. The government and these organizations have made attempts to increase the socio-economic status of women. The authors believe that the generation of income alone is not enough to fully address or increase economic equality of women. This is because the problem affecting Indian women not only revolves around economic status but also around economic discrimination and a complex relationship between economic status and culture of poor women.

The research method used by the authors was a literature review of articles based on discussing factors that manipulate the position of women with regards to economic development. Various social and business studies databases were searched to gather adequate information. At the end of the study, the authors concluded that the socio-economic status of women in Indian is negatively affected by gender discrimination. Among the things that are rarely examined by mainstream literature are issues of marginalized workers and workforce needs. Additionally, the authors argued that empowerment is a very important factor that can help create leadership and political power, especially on the part of women. As a result of this, they advocate for the socio-economic empowerment of poor women since this approach is a proactive stand and the best for sustainability.

Gupta, Shivani. “Impact of Economic Development on Status of Women: An Analysis for India.” International Journal of Business and Management Invention ISSN (Online) (2014): 2319-8028.

This paper looks at the effect of economic development on the status of Indian women. Also, it looks at how certain factors have perpetrated discrimination and deprivation against Indian women, thereby reducing the overall status of women in the current society. Some of these factors are beliefs, predispositions, prejudices, and historical perception. The authors state that an increase in per capita income shows growth of an economy, and this is just a quantitative aspect when it comes to distributive justice. On the other hand, economic development is a bit different from economic growth since it encompasses both quantitative and qualitative aspects of income inequality and the distribution of income. Meaning that it considers not only an increase in per capita income, but also positive changes in nutritional status, health condition, alleviation of poverty, educational attainment of people, living standards, empowerment, and status of women.

After performing a wide literature review on already published articles, the author concluded that there is a direct relationship between elevation of the status of women and economic development, especially there is the element of equity in the distributive process of the economy. The author further found that women in India have been uplifted by economic development taking place. However, there is still a wide gap in rural places. This gap has to be bridged by the better strategies in order to attain equality in the status of both women and men. A conglomerative culture of debasement of womanhood, degradation, deprivation, and discrimination have been perpetrated by social norms and customs, religious beliefs, patriarchy, and traditions intensely held in society.  Addressing these issues will be a big step when it comes to eliminating the problem of gender inequality in India.

World Economic Forum. “How can Women promote India’s Economic Development?” 2012. Web 9 Jul. 2018.

This article argues that women if given equal opportunity, can play a significant role in economic growth.  The good thing with India is that it has been growing very fast, but the problem is that this growth is not reflected in inclusivity and equality. The biggest issue determined by the article is the problem of the empowerment of women. This is a fact that has been arrived at after a comparison was made between India and other developing societies. The article further argues that empowering and educating women across the world has been an excellent catalyst for rapid socio-economic growth. However, in societies where women are repressed, such as India, are the most backward. The population of Indian women makes up about 7.5 percent of the total population of the world. According to the Gender Gap Index of the World Economic Forum, India is ranked 113 out of 135. There are some development indicators that show an improvement in the quality of life of Indian women. The improvements are evident with regards to more women gaining access to education and healthcare; literacy rates increasing; maternal mortality rates declining. The problem with this case of India is that the pace of change is very slow.

The article further argues that the foundation of the basic unit of any society is women. This is because women show great innovation, commitment, hard work, intelligence, and skills. The growth in Indian society can be equitable and inclusive if it harnesses these aspects properly. As a result of this, the article argues that the education of women is very important. A large population of Indian women resides in rural areas. Therefore, access to educational opportunities has to be availed in all corners of the country.

Gupta, Raka, and Bipin Kumar Gupta. “Role of women in economic development.” Yojana 31.18 (1987): 28.

The authors carried out this study with the goal of assessing the role of rural women when it comes to economic development. The study examined the socio-economic conditions of two hundred rural women two villages. These were one hundred women from the village of Varsaitpur and one hundred women from the village of Makanpur. The authors found that women in rural India play two roles. They are the producers of services and goods as well as act as mothers and wives on top of performing domestic chores. When it comes to general household activities, rural women were found to contribute 70 percent of labor in Varsaitpur and 73 percent in Makanpur. The contribution of women was so much in the Scheduled Castes. On the other hand, when it came to agricultural activities, women contributed 40 percent in Varsaitpur (this was about 59 percent of agricultural labor) and 40 percent in Makanpur (that is 66 percent of agricultural labor). When all these were put together, the authors found that the contribution of women to economic activities was 49 percent in Varsaitpur and 52 percent in Makanpur. This is an indication that women are playing a significant role in the development of the society. Some of the problems that these respondents face are limited education, malnutrition, health issues, and repeated childbearing. If the participation of women in economic development is to be changed, then women should be given certain services. These are family planning services meant to reduce childbearing, easy access to low-interest loans, and training together with education in income generating activities.

Lahoti, Rahul, and Hema Swaminathan. “Economic Development and Women’s Labor Force participation in India.” Feminist Economics 22.2 (2016): 168-195.

This article by Lahoti and Swaminathan is relevant to this study because it explores the association between women’s labor supply and economic development. While performing their study, the authors used state-level data for the periods between 1983–4 and 2011–2. Their study found that there has been a drastic economic growth in India over the past years. On the contrary, there is still a decline in the labor force participation of women. The relationship between the labor force participation of women and economic development is U-shaped. After looking at the relationship between the structure of women’s economic activity and economy, the authors concluded that it is not economic growth that is relevant for women, but rather the composition of growth.

Shettar, Dr, and M. Rajeshwari. “A study on issues and challenges of women empowerment in India.” (2015).

This article by Shettar and Rajeshwari is relevant to this study because it is based on analyzing the position of women empowerment in India. By doing this, it looks at the challenges and issues facing women empowerment. The authors argue that the empowerment of women is among the pressing concerns of the 21st century. Practically, women empowerment is not a reality in a country like India. The concept is still an illusion. Since the study was analytical and descriptive in nature, a number of previously published articles were analyzed by the authors. The employment of women and attainment of incomes is still poor in India. The loopholes that are negatively impacting the realization of empowerment of women needs to be addressed. Among the strategies that have been proposed by the authors are changing attitude towards women and policy initiative.

 

 

 

Works Cited

Sivakumar, Marimuthu. “Gender Discrimination and Women’s Development in India.” (2008).

Razvi, Meena, and Gene L. Roth. “Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in

India.” Online Submission (2004).

Gupta, Shivani. “Impact of Economic Development on Status of Women: An Analysis for

India.” International Journal of Business and Management Invention ISSN (Online) (2014): 2319-8028.

World Economic Forum. “How can Women promote India’s Economic Development?” 2012.

Web 9 Jul. 2018.

Gupta, Raka, and Bipin Kumar Gupta. “Role of Women in Economic

Development.” Yojana 31.18 (1987): 28.

Lahoti, Rahul, and Hema Swaminathan. “Economic Development and Women’s Labor Force

participation in India.” Feminist Economics 22.2 (2016): 168-195.

Shettar, Dr, and M. Rajeshwari. “A study on Issues and Challenges of Women Empowerment in

India.” (2015).

 

 

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