Penis Structures of the penis

Penis Structures of the penis

Anatomical Location:

External genitalia:

Penis is located in the pubic region superior to the scrotum and inferior to the umbilicus along the body’s midline.

– Scrotum The scrotum is a unique anatomical feature of humans and certain other species of land-dwelling mammals. It is continuous with the skin of the lower abdomen and is located directly behind the penis and in front of the anus.

– Testicle is contained within the scrotal sac, which is located directly behind the penis and in front of the anus.

Internal genitalia:

– Vas Deferens passes through the inguinal canal en route to the abdominal cavity eventually, into the urethra.

– Ejaculatory ducts are present at the interface of the ductus deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle. The ejaculatory duct is present within the prostate and it ends at the prostate urethra.

– Prostate glands is located inferiorly to the bladder

– Epididymis head lies on the superior surface of the testes, while the body and tail and are on the posterior surface of the testis.

– Urethra- a duct that transmits urine from the bladder to the exterior of the body during urination. The urethra is held closed by the urethral sphincter, a muscular structure that helps keep urine in the bladder until voiding can occur.

– Bulbourethral glands are located posterior and lateral to the membranous portion of the urethra at the base of the penis, between the two layers of the fascia of the urogenital diaphragm, in the deep perineal pouch

– Seminal Vesicles are located on the posterior surface of the urinary bladder lateral to the ampulla of theductus deferens


– Penis Structures of the penis

  • The outer foreskin layer is a continuation of the skin of the shaft of the penis.
  • The inner foreskin layer is not just “skin,” but mucocutaneous tissue of a unique type found nowhere else on the body.
  • The ridged band is the interface (join) between the outer and inner foreskin layers. When the penis is not erect, it tightens to narrow the foreskin opening. During erection, the ridged band forms ridges that go all the way around, about halfway down the shaft.
  • The reddish or purplish glans or glans penis (head of the penis) is smooth, shiny, moist and extremely sensitive.
  • The frenulum is a connecting membrane on the underside of the penis, similar to that beneath the tongue.

– Scrotum in the male reproductive system, a thin external sac of skin that is divided into two compartments; each compartment contains one of the two testes, the glands that produce sperm, and one of the epididymides, where the sperm is stored. … It contains the testes and lowest parts of the spermatic cord

-Testicles are a part of a man’s reproductive system. A man has 2 testicles. Each testicle is egg-shaped and about 5 cm long. The testicles are covered by a sac of skin called the scrotum

-Vas Deferens a fibromuscular tube that is continuation of the epididymis and is an excretory duct of the testis.

-Ejaculatory duct either of two hollow tubes, each formed by union of the ampulla of a ductus deferensand the excretory duct of a seminal vesicle.

-Epididymis a tightly coiled mass of thin tubes

-Prostate gland is about the size of a walnut. This is a tube that carries urine and semen out of the body. The prostate is partly muscular and partly glandular

-Urethra is a single structure, it is composed of a heterogeneous series of segments: prostatic, membranous, and spongy.

-Bulbourethral the glands, which measure only about 1 cm (0.4 inch) in diameter, have ducts that empty into the

urethra, the tube through which both urine and semen pass. They are composed of a network of small tubes, or tubules, and saclike structures; between the tubules are fibers of muscle and elastic tissue that give the glands structural support.

-Seminal vesicles each vesicle consists of a single tube folded and coiled on itself, with occasional diverticula in its wall. Each seminal vesicle consists of a single, coiled, blind-ending tube giving off several irregular pouches. It is normally around 3 to 5 cm in length and 1 cm in diameter. However, when uncoiled they are roughly 10 cm in length.


– Scrotum is two oval-shaped glands responsible for producing and storing sperm.

– The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra, the tube that carries urine or sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation.

– Epididymis stores sperms for maturation.

– Testicles The main function of the testes is producing and storing sperm. They’re also crucial for creating testosterone and other male hormones called androgens.

– Ejaculatory duct function to mix the sperm stored in the ampulla with fluids secreted by the seminal vesicles and to transport these substances to the prostate.

– Prostate glands main function is to secrete prostate fluid, one of the components of semen.

– Bulbourethral – The primary function of bulbourethral glands is production of pre-ejaculate. It is a clear, viscous secretion that is produced during sexual arousal. Its function is to help lubricate the urethra for spermatozoa to pass and neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra.

Seminal Vesicles secrete a significant proportion of the fluid that ultimately becomes semen.


– Epididymis lined with pseudostratified columnar epitheliun with stereocilia

– Bulbourethral is enclosed by transverse fibers of the sphincter urethrae membranaceae muscle.

– The testes are surrounded by several layers of tissue. They are the:

tunica vasculosa

tunica albuginea

tunica vaginalis

– Vas Deferens The mucosa of the vas deferens forms low longitudinal folds. It is lined by a pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Similar to the epididymis, cells have long stereocilia.

– Prostate glands the tubuloalveolar glands have pseudostratified columnar epithelium of varying height.  Basal cells are found between the columnar cells for regeneration of the epithelium. Each gland is surrounded by connective tissue and smooth muscle (fibromuscular stroma).

– Bulbourethral a thin connective tissue membrane separates the alveoli of the glands and supports their blood vessels. The tubules and alveoli of the body are lined by tall columnar epithelium with small, flattened nuclei; those in the tail by low columnar epithelium with round basal nuclei.

– Seminal vesicles histologically, the seminal vesicles are composed of 3 layers. These include an inner mucosal layer, consisting of pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells and a lamina propria; a muscular layer, with an inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle arrangement; and finally, an outer adventitial layer composed of loose areolar tissue.

Interesting Facts

Males produce the smallest human cell — the sperm, which is only 5 micrometers by 3 micrometers in size, not including the sperm’s “tail.”


Examples of cancers of the reproductive system include:

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