The human body has eleven organ systems

Eleven organ systems

The human body has eleven organ systems. The organ systems are; integumentary system, endocrine system, excretory system, respiratory system, digestive system, circulatory system, nervous system, muscular system, reproductive system, lymphatic system, and the skeletal system. Each organ system has its specific functions but all the organ systems work interdependently to achieve homeostasis in the body. One example of a primary system is the respiratory system and its corresponding secondary system is the circulatory system.


Respiratory system: The respiratory system consists of a series of organs that takes in oxygen in the body and expels carbon IV oxide. The respiratory system consists of three main parts; the lungs, the airway, and the respiratory muscles (Kleinstreuer & Zhang 2010). The airway consists of the larynx, pharynx, bronchioles, bronchi, nose, and trachea. The respiratory muscles consists the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm. The airway is the passage of oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. The intercostals muscle pushes air in and out of the lungs.


Circulatory system (Cardiovascular system):The circulatory system circulates respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide), metabolic wastes, and nutrients through the body. The heart is the center of the circulatory system. Other parts of the circulatory systems are the veins, capillaries, arterioles, arteries, blood, and the lungs. The circulatory system composes the pulmonary circulation and the systematic circulation. The pulmonary circulation is the process where blood flows from the heart to the lungs and vice versa. Systematic circulation is the process where the blood flows from the heart, to all other organs, and back to the heart (Noordergraaf 2012).


The homeostatic interrelationship between the two organ systems


The respiratory and the excretory systems work co-dependently to aid in circulating blood and oxygen through all the body parts of a human being.


  • The respiratory system facilitates gaseous exchange in the human body. The circulatory system pumps the blood through the body. The process of gaseous exchange ensures that the blood is fresh throughout.
  • The lungs connects the circulatory system and the circulatory system. The lungs assist in the pulmonary circulation system. The process involves the flow of oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart and flow of deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.
  • The respiratory system controls air intake into the body and removal of carbon dioxide from the body thus maintaining homeostasis (Ionescu 2013). The circulatory system on the other hand maintains homeostasis by maintaining gaseous exchange within the individual cells.
  • The respiratory system and the circulatory system work hand in hand to ensure that all the body tissues have enough oxygen supply. In the respiratory process, the airway takes in air to the lungs. The lungs take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. The lungs oxygenate the blood flowing from the heart to it. In the blood circulatory process, the deoxygenated blood flows from the body tissues, to the heart, and then to the lungs. The lungs fill the blood with oxygen and the blood is pumped back to the heart which pumps it to all other body parts. Thus, all body parts have adequate supply of oxygen through the two processes.
  • The respiratory and the circulatory systems work together to ensure that the excretion of carbon iv oxide from the body is successful. After the oxygenated blood flows into the body tissues, the tissues take in the oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide. The blood with carbon dioxide is referred to as the deoxygenated blood. The deoxygenated blood flows from the body tissues to the heart. The heart pumps the blood to the lungs where the lungs removes the carbon dioxide from the blood and expels it out to the environment through the nose. Thus, the circulatory process assists the respiratory system in excretion of carbon dioxide.
  • The circulatory process circulates nutrients to all the body parts including the parts of the respiratory systems. This supply of nutrients to the respiratory organs nourishes them to work well.


One disease that affects the respiratory system


One of the respiratory diseases is the tuberculosis (TB).


TB is a major respiratory illness that attacks the lungs and other respiratory organs. The disease can be easily spread through the air when an infected person laughs, talks, or coughs. There are two forms of TB;

Latent TB:The bacteria causing TB is inactive and signs and symptoms are not yet noticeable. The bacteria are not easily transmitted. The disease is very easy to cure at this stage.

Active TB: The bacteria causing the disease is now active. Signs and symptoms are visible and the bacteria is contagious. The disease at this stage is acute and the patient is likely to die if he/she does not receive adequate medical attention.

Causative agent

A bacterium called Mycobacterium TB (tubercle bacillus) is the causative agent of TB (Johnkennedy Augustin& Ikechukwu 2012).

The vulnerable people

  • Living in overcrowded places.
  • People with weak immune systems like people infected with HIV virus.
  • People who undergo treatments like chemotherapy because it weakens their immune systems.
  • People who live an unhealthy lifestyle like the drunkards, and those who have very poor diet.
  • The old and the very young children are likely to suffer from TB because they have weaker immune systems.

Signs and symptoms

  • Fever
  • Lack of appetite
  • Loss of weight
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Dark urine
  • Jaundice
  • Severe coughing (chronic)

Prevention and cure

  • A patient suffering from TB should take antibiotics administered by a specialized doctor for a prolonged period (Tulu & Kahissay 2014).
  • Administer vaccines to people who are not yet infected.
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