resistance mechanism to antibacterial treatment

The following figure represents a resistance mechanism to antibacterial treatment. Which of the following best describes this resistance mechanism;

  1. Production of different binding sites
  2. Production of degrading enzyme
  3. Decreasing drug permeability
  4. Production of efflux pumps
  5. In order to overcome bacterial resistant on the previous question, we should; (more than one answer may apply)
  6. Use a combination of Penicillin plus clavulanic acid
  7. Give alternative medications like; cephalosporins, or aminoglycosides
  8. Wait until the patient’s immune system kills the pathogen
  9. Treat for the symptoms only

The following figure represents a resistance mechanism to antibacterial treatment. Which of the following best describes this resistance mechanism;

  1. Production of different binding sites
  2. Production of degrading enzyme
  3. Decreasing drug permeability
  4. Production of efflux pumps

The following figure represents a resistance mechanism to antibacterial treatment. Which of the following best describes this resistance mechanism;

  1. Production of different binding sites
  2. Production of degrading enzyme
  3. Decreasing drug permeability
  4. Production of efflux pumps

The following figure represents a resistance mechanism to antibacterial treatment. Which of the following best describes this resistance mechanism;

  1. Production of different binding sites
  2. Production of degrading enzyme
  3. Decreasing drug permeability
  4. Production of efflux pumps
  • Bacterial resistance could be acquired by the transfer of plasmid during sexual reproduction or from one bacterial cell to another living in the same vicinity;
  • True
  • False

The following figure represents a resistance mechanism to antibacterial treatment. Which of the following best describes this resistance mechanism;

  1. Production of different binding sites
  2. Production of degrading enzyme
  3. Finding an alternative metabolic pathway
  4. Production of efflux pumps
  5. A type of cell receptors function in recognition of self by the individual’s immune system and is critical in blood transfusions or organ transplants;
  6. MHC I
  7. MHC II
  8. MHC IX
  9. None of the above
  10. A type of cell receptors function in detecting foreign molecules and initiating an immune response;
  11. MHC I
  12. MHC II
  13. MHC IX
  14. HLA
  15. Undifferentiated lymphocytes exist in;
  16. Thymus gland
  17. Bone marrow
  18. Lymph nodes
  19. The liver
  20. Lymphocytes differentiate to T and B lymphocytes at;
  21. Trachea and Brain
  22. Tonsils and blood
  23. Thymus and Bone marrow
  24. Liver and heart
  25. What type of immune cell first detects and processes antigens and foreign molecules;
  26. Antigen presenting cells (APCs)
  27. T lymphocytes
  28.  B lymphocytes
  29. None of the above
  30. A molecule that initiates an immune response with an active site for immune cell recognition is known as;
  31. Immune misleader
  32. Epitope
  33. Immunoglobulin
  34. Hapten
  35. Antigen binding sites on immunoglobulins are located on the heavy chain only;
  36. True
  37. False
  38. Memory cells are undifferentiated B lymphocytes;
  39. True
  40. False
  1. Which of the following immunoglobulin classes is composed of five subunits (pentamer) linked together by J-chains;
  2. IgA
  3. IgG
  4. IgE
  5. IgM
  6. A person with a hypersensitivity reaction. Which of the following immunoglobulin classes should be found elevated on the patient’s blood;
  7. IgA
  8. IgG
  9. IgE
  10. IgM
  11. Which of the following immunoglobulin classes is produced later in infections;
  12. IgA
  13. IgG
  14. IgE
  15. IgM
  16. Immunoglobulins’ functions is to recognize, immobilize and neutralize antigens;
  17. True
  18. False
  19. Which of the following immunoglobulin classes is secreted at mucus membranes (salivary glands, intestine, nasal membrane, genitourinary tract…etc)
  20. IgA
  21. IgG
  22. IgE
  23. IgM
  24. Which of the following immunoglobulin classes is associated with basophiles and mast cells in blood;
  25. IgA
  26. IgG
  27. IgE
  28. IgM
  29. IgD immunoglobulins’ main function is triggering B cell activation.
  30. True
  31. False
  32. In order to overcome bacterial resistant to penicillin, we should; (more than one answer may apply)
  33. Use a combination of Penicillin plus clavulanic acid
  34. Give alternative medications like; cephalosporins, or aminoglycosides
  35. Wait until the patient’s immune system kills the pathogen
  36. Treat for the symptoms only
  • Which of the following organisms produce thePanton-Valentine leucocidin;
  • E. coli
  • MRSA
  • Vibrio cholera
  • C. diff
  • The word “mycosis” refers to;
  • Bacterial infection
  • Viral infections
  • Fungal infection
  • Parasitic infection
  • Which of the following is a cell-wall deficient bacterium;
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  • Heamophilus influenza
  • E. coli
  • Which of the following pathogens causes gastritis and gastric ulcer
  • E. coli
  • H. pylori
  • S. typhi
  • E. faecium
  • A characteristic diarrhea that exhibits rice-water consistency and color is a typical symptom of ………………………….. infection.
  • E. coli
  • S. typhi
  • Shigella
  • Vibrio cholera
  • Viral infection characterized by projectile vomiting and is world wide spread
  • S. aureus
  • Norovirus
  • Herpesvirus
  • Campylobacter
  • Which of the following is a spirochete that is transmitted through intercourse;
  • Borrelia burgdorferi
  • Treponema pallidum
  • Neisseria gonorrhea
  • Chlamydia sp.
  • Which of the following sexually transmitted bacteria causes ophthalmia neonatorum;
  • Papillomavirus 
  • HSV-2
  • Neisseria gonorrhea
  • Chlamydia sp.
  • Clostridium tetani causes ………………………… paralysis
  • Spastic
  • Flaccid
  • Degenerative
  • Trigeminal 
  • Clostridium botulinum causes ……………………… paralysis
  • Spastic
  • Flaccid
  • Degenerative
  • Trigeminal 
  • Trichomonas vaginalis is a ……………………….. that causes vaginitis
  • Virus
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Parasite
  • ……………………….. is a virus transmitted sexually and is associated with cervical cancer.
  • HSV-2
  • HIV
  • HPV
  • HSV-1
  • The harmful effect of Salmonella and Shigella infections is primarily due to;
  • Consumption of nutrients in GIT
  • Production of toxins by these bacteria
  • Immune reaction against the bacteria
  • Inhibition of absorption
  • Streptococcus species are classified based on ability to digest blood cells.
  • True
  • False
  • Aspergillus is a ………………………. that causes sinusitis or ear infections
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Parasite
  • Virus
  • Which of the following E. coli strains is characterized by severe hemorrhage
  • Enteropathogenic
  • Enterotoxogenic
  • Enterohemorrhagic
  • O157:H7
  • Bacillus anthracis may cause; skin, lung and GIT infections depending on route of transmission
  • True
  • False

Assay questions

  • Based on your search, briefly describe differences between gram positive and gram negative bacterial cell walls.
  • What are cytokines and chemokines and what is their role in immune responses.
  • Based on your search, briefly describe type 1 hypersensitivity reaction.
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