Stress Issue

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. One of the references must come from Flamez, B. & Sheperis, C. J. (2015) and/or Sommers-Flanagan, J., & Sommers-Flanagan, R. (2007). I have also attached my discussion rubric so you can see how to make full points. Please respond to all 3 of my classmates separately with separate references for each response. I need this completed by 12/30/18 at 6pm.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings. Respond to your colleagues’ postings.

Respond in one or more of the following ways:

· Ask a probing question.

· Share an insight gained from having read your colleague’s posting.

· Offer and support an opinion.

· Validate an idea with your own experience.

· Make a suggestion.

· Expand on your colleague’s posting.

1. Classmate (B. Hun)

Deployment of a Parent

One stressor for a child or adolescent is when their parent receives orders to be deployed.  Depending on their parent’s job (MOS) in the military, they will receive orders a couple months out from their departure.  These deployments are now lasting between nine to 12 months, but can be extended depending on circumstances surrounding the deployment.  For some jobs, such as special forces, their parent could receive notice within 48 hours of departing and could be gone for at least a week to a couple months depending on the mission.  While their parent is gone, the time zone is almost opposite of the child or adolescent’s time zone and the communication is not consistent. 

My father was deployed off and on to Afghanistan twice, Iraq, and Africa starting when I was 14 and ending when I was about 20 years of age.  During this time, it was extremely stressful and I was very emotional for the entire time he was gone.  It was even more stressful when I would not hear from him at night because I knew he would be on a mission.  The worry of not knowing whether he was safe was heartbreaking and kept me on edge, but when I heard from him there was an overwhelming relief and joy.

Factors Influencing Stressor

There is an increase in emotional and behavioral symptoms with children and adolescents who have a parent that is deployed overseas (Lester, Mustillo, & Wadsworth, 2016).  For example, increased levels of anxiety as well as depression and anger are increased in children of parents who are deployed.  It is difficult to understand why they leave to go overseas and why they cannot just stay home until they get older and have those conversations with their parents or counselors.  There are quite a few factors that influence the manifestations of this adjustment including culture or family and societal factors; however, only a couple will be explored in this discussion. 

The stress of a deployment is largely on not knowing whether their parent is safe, not knowing how long they will be gone, and not being able to talk frequently.  Stress increases within children iwhen they are not being included in the conversation of deploying as to what is to be expected and how long the deployment will be (Cromer & Louie, 2014).  For example, often children are not included in the conversation of what is to be expected during the deployment such as missing holidays and birthdays and why their parent has to miss these (Cromer & Louie, 2014).  Knowing what to expect and the reason behind it will help with their stress level not being elevated from fearing the unknown.  Communication during deployment is essential for children and adolescents with both the parent or guardian that is with them as well as with the parent that is deployed (Cromer & Louie, 2014). 

Difficult Factor to Address

Rebecca, who is 10 years of age, is referred to counseling from her teacher and mom because she is beginning to withdraw from her friends at school; cries herself to sleep every night; and has rage explosions towards her mom at night when she does not hear from her dad.  She blames her dad for “leaving” her with her mom who is hardly home for having to work and spends most of her nights drinking at home.  There are many factors in this scenario that increases Rebecca’s anxiety and depression.  The factor that would be the most difficult for me to address would be frustrations from not being able to communicate with their parent who is deployed. 

Expectations need to be told about the communication most likely not being an everyday thing and explaining it could be because their parent is working or the internet connection is not stable.  This would be difficult because it would need to be told to both the mom and dad.  The communication with the parent that is deployed can either be direct or indirect.  Direct includes talking on the phone or through skype and indirect includes sending letters and/or packages (Cromer & Louie, 2014).  Rebecca can be encouraged to write a letter to her dad when she does not talk with him at night to write down everything she wants to tell him that happened that day. 

References

Cromer, L. D., & Louie, A. D. (2014). Parent-child attachment during the deployment cycle: impact on reintegration parenting stress.  Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, (6), 496.  Retrieved from https://ezp. Waldenulibrary.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgea&AN=edsgcl.398492104&site=eds-live&scope=site

Lester, P., Mustillo, S., & Wadsworth, S. M. (2016). Parental deployment and well-being in children: Results from a new study of military families. Journal of emotional and behavioral disorders, 24(2), 82-91. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1177/1063426615598766

2. Classmate (K.Rog)

Stress and Adjustment

Main Discussion Post

People consistently experience traumas and other stressors that can affect their health or wellbeing (Flamez & Sheperis, 2016). Individuals can experience an adjustment disorder based on their response to a recurring or continuous stressor (Flamez & Sheperis, 2016). Children and adolescents often act out both at home and in school when they are under undue stressed that was caused by outside forces such as divorce, death of a loved one, or forced relocation. When stressful events outweigh protective factors, even the most resilient children can develop problems (Deshpande & Pandey, 2014). If young clients don’t experience counseling as a positive dimension to their lives, they will be more likely to resist attending counseling sessions as well as resist the therapeutic processes (Sommers-Flanagan & Sommers-Flanagan, 2007).

Stress Issue

The stress issue that I have chosen is divorce. Parents often overlook the impact that divorce can have on children and adolescents. When a child is used to growing up and interacting with both parents under the same roof, it is extremely traumatic and stressful when that dynamic changes. A child’s perception of divorce is based on age and gender as well as their history of stress and coping (Deshpande & Pandey, 2014). Divorce can permanently weaken the family unit and the individual relationships between the child and the parent (Deshpande & Pandey, 2014).

Cultural Influences of Divorce

Due to the innocence and immaturity of children, they struggle to process stressful events, such as divorce (Deshpande & Pandey, 2014). Their behaviors and reactions range from subtle to explosive as parental relationships are pivotal to a child’s life (Deshpande & Pandey, 2014). Most cultural differences begin with the morals and values that are instilled in children at an early age by their parents. Life experiences continue to enhance those differences in one way or another. Based on the child’s cultural influences there is a stigma that is associated with the views of divorce that greatly impact the adjustment or stress issue. There are cultures that believe that divorce is never an option. In these cases children can be chastised and ridiculed based solely on the fact that their parents divorced. This can cause not only stress to develop but also shame and humiliation.

Most Difficult Manifestation

The most difficult manifestation for me would be the cultural influence. There are so many different cultures and influences that exists that I know that I need to get additional training on other cultures. The way that an African-American twelve year old male may handle or experience divorce could be different than a Jewish twelve year old male. Learning cultural differences is imperative to be able to help diverse clients. Minorities struggle with trying to either find the balance of their cultural beliefs with American cultural beliefs or just assuming the beliefs of Americans. This can cause a huge problem for adolescents who don’t want to disappoint their parents but want to feel justified in feeling the way that they feel when going through a difficult life experience such as divorce. The more knowledge a counselor has about the historical aspect of a client’s culture, the more relevant the questions will be (Hays, 2016).

Conclusion

Divorce can be a very confusing time for children (Deshpande & Pandey, 2014). The stress of being split between two parents who were once in the family home can lead to undue stress on a child or adolescent. This undue stress can lead to acting out and other negative behaviors because the child or adolescent is unsure of how to cope with the divorce. Counselors should be aware of cultural factors that contribute to how stress can develop and negatively impact children.

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