JOB ATTITUDES

JOB ATTITUDES

Kirca and Yaprak (2010) develop a five-stage framework and research practices commonly associated with each of the five stages in their framework, which they summarize in Table 1 on p. 307. In this fourth SLP assignment, your job is to:

  • Apply the Kirca and Yaprak five-stage framework to identify the meta-analysis stages and practices described in the articles by Riketta (2008) and Harrison, Newman, and Roth (2006).

SLP Assignment Expectations

  1. Fill in the table in the Identification and Assessment of Meta-Analysis Stages and Practicesto focus and structure your work.
  2. Search carefully within each article for information as to whether and how the authors describe the five meta-analytic stages and associated practices proposed by Kirca and Yaprak. Note that the information regarding a practice may appear in more than one place in the article, or in a section that seems unrelated to the section heading. In other words, the evidence of each practice could potentially appear anywhere in the article.
  3. Once you have assembled this information in the table, briefly critique the extent to which “the coding process proceeded with rigor and that all relevant possible studies were included in the database” (Kirca & Yaprak, p. 311) in the Riketta (2008) and Harrison, et al. (2006) studies, and to make recommendations to the authors for how they could strengthen confidence in the comprehensiveness of the studies included in their sample.

General Expectations

  1. Length: 4 pages of double-spaced, 12-point text, plus cover and reference pages.
  2. Structure: Narrative style with brief introduction, relevant section headings, and summary conclusion section.
  3. References: Follow Campion’s (1997) rules for references (see Background page).
  4. Style: APA format.
  5. Proofread your paper before uploading it.
  6. Upload your paper by the module due date.
  • Kirca and Yaprak five-stage framework to identify the meta-analysis stages and practices described in the articles by Riketta (2008) and Harrison, Newman, and Roth (2006).

Kirca and Yaprak

Kirca, A. H., & Yaprak, A. (2010). The use of meta-analysis in international business research: Its current status and suggestions for better practice. International Business Review, 19(3), 306-314.

Link: file:///C:/Users/owner/Downloads/The_use_of_meta-analysis_in_international_business.pdf

  • Riketta (2008)

Riketta, M. (2008). The Causal Relation Between Job Attitudes and Performance: A Meta-Analysis of Panel Studies. Journal Of Applied Psychology93(2), 472-481.

Harrison, et al. (2006)

Harrison, Newman, and Roth (2006).

Harrison, D. A., Newman, D. A., & Roth, P. L. (2006). How important are job attitudes? Meta-analytic comparisons of integrative behavioral outcomes and time sequences. Academy Of Management Journal49(2), 305-325. doi:10.5465/AMJ.2006.20786077

Link:      http://www.business.unr.edu/faculty/simmonsb/mgt486/amjjobattitudes.pdf

Link:

Background

Required Materials

There are two sections of required readings in this module. The first section introduces Meta-analysis as a quantitative approach to reviewing and synthesizing the results of a large number of empirical research studies on a particular topic. The goal is to help you understand, critique, and effectively draw upon meta-analysis research review articles. The second section provides breadth and depth of foundation in theory and research related to job attitudes, and includes recent, high quality meta-analyis research articles that illustrate the concepts introduced in the articles in the first section.

Note: The required readings are described in the order in which you are encouraged to read them, as each provides concepts that will help you make sense of the subsequent readings.

  1. Meta-Analysis

In Module 3 of ORG601 you were introduced to three basic types of academic articles that contribute to the creation and testing of new knowledge:

  1. Theoretical articles that develop new theoretical constructs and propose conceptual relationships among those constructs
  2. Empirical research articles in which quantitative data is collected and analyzed, most often to test hypotheses that are derived deductively from a theory, and
  3. Review articles that provide an in-depth overview of the theory and empirical research related to a particular phenomenon.

meta-analysis article could be seen as a hybrid of the second and third types of academic articles. It employs an empirical, meta-analytic research method to quantitatively review and synthesize empirical research findings from a large number of studies on a particular topic.

The following article provide an overview of the nature, role, methods, and relative use of meta-analysis in two fields related to business administration: information systems and international business research.

  • Kirca, A. H., & Yaprak, A. (2010). The use of meta-analysis in international business research: Its current status and suggestions for better practice. International Business Review, 19(3), 306-314.
  1. Job Attitudes

In this module, we focus on the two most widely researched job attitudes – organizational commitment and job satisfaction. However, a wide variety of job attitudes have been conceptualized, operationalized, and researched. In their meta-analysis of the relationships between age and job attitudes, Ng and Feldman (2010) provide a succinct overview of job attitudes. Table 1 lists and defines 35 job attitudes that have been researched in relation to age in the workplace, with references to the original sources of those definitions. This provides a very handy guide that can help identify job attitudes that may be relevant to your own research. Please read the Job Attitudes section that begins on p. 679, up to the Theoretical Background heading on p. 683 (unless you are specifically interested in the impact of age on job attitudes, then of course read the whole article):

  • Ng, T. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2010). The relationships of age with job attitudes: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology63(3), 677-718. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010.01184.x

In RES601, Module 2, you were introduced to the operationalization of constructs through multi-item scales. Researchers in organizational behavior develop and apply such scales extensively in their work. You have already been introduced to a variety of such measures in this course. However, are multi-item scales always the best way to measure a construct? When does it make theoretical, empirical, and/or practical sense to use a single item to operationalize a construct? In the following meta-analysis, Wanous, et al. (1997) empirically compared single-item measures vs. multi-item scales measuring the job attitude of overall job satisfaction. In doing so, they provide clear guidance regarding these questions:

  • Wanous, J. P., Reichers, A. E., & Hudy, M. J. (1997). Overall Job Satisfaction: How Good Are Single-Item Measures?. Journal Of Applied Psychology82(2), 247-252.

In the following meta-analysis, Harrison, Newman, and Roth (2006) take a novel, integrative approach to empirically addressing an age old question about the relative importance and impact of job attitudes on work related behaviors. Pay careful attention to the compatibility principle (p. 309), and the ways in which the authors conceptualize and measure the job attitude constructs that they use in their study:

Harrison, D. A., Newman, D. A., & Roth, P. L. (2006). How important are job attitudes? Meta-analytic comparisons of integrative behavioral outcomes and time sequences. Academy Of Management Journal49(2), 305-325. doi:10.5465/AMJ.2006.20786077

In the “Limitations and Research Directions” section of their article, Harrison, et al. (2006) note that a criticism of the method that they used is that it “does not allow for clear-cut cause-effect conclusions (as time-lagged and especially cross-sectional correlations cannot definitely establish temporal precedence…” Keep that criticism in mind as you read the following brief meta-analysis that attempts to test the nature and direction of causality in relationships between job attitudes and performance. Also, please pay careful attention to the author’s conceptualization and measurement of the primary job attitudes included in his research:

  • Riketta, M. (2008). The Causal Relation Between Job Attitudes and Performance: A Meta-Analysis of Panel Studies. Journal Of Applied Psychology93(2), 472-481.

In 2002, Swailes critiqued the conceptualization and measurement of the job attitude of organizational commitment. Ideally, the later Harrison, et al. (2006) Riketta (2008) meta-analyses addressed and resolved the issues that Swailes identified. As you read this, you may find it helpful to take notes wherever you notice issues that are relevant to either or both of the subsequent Harrison, et al. and Riketta meta-analyses, as your observations will help you in completing your Case Assignment:

  • Swailes, S. (2002). Organizational commitment: A critique of the construct and measures. International Journal Of Management Reviews4(2), 155.

Supplemental Materials

You may have noticed in the required readings that many authors cite Azjen (2001) as a key source to support their conceptualization and/or definition of job attitudes. Whenever you notice a source like that being cited by multiple authors, it may mean that it is a foundational theoretical or empirical article. If that construct were central to your own research, then you would be expected to go back and read the original source, not just the more recent authors who cite that source.

Icek Azjen is a psychologist, and his review of the nature and operation of attitudes provides a solid conceptual foundation that is broader than the the specific, contextualized focus on job attitudes in our fieldMany constructs in organizational studies are based on foundational theory and research in other fields, including psychology. If you plan to include one or more job attitudes in your doctoral research model, it would be important for you to read this review:

Ajzen, I. (2001). Nature and operation of attitudes. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 27-58.

Abstract: This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit.

The following meta-analysis examines the impact of individual personality (which you studied in Module 1 in this course) as the IV, on the attitude of job satisfaction (the focus of this module), as the DV. It illustrates the fact that a construct can serve as an IV, DV, moderator, or mediator in a study, depending on the focus of the research.

However, some constructs cannot logically serve as either an IV or a DV. For example, could pay satisfaction cause personality? It is highly unlikely that a transitory attitude like pay satisfaction could substantively influence the far more stable enduring nature of individual personality.

Bruk-Lee, V., Khoury, H. A., Nixon, A. E., Goh, A., & Spector, P. E. (2009). Replicating and Extending Past Personality/Job Satisfaction Meta-Analyses. Human Performance22(2), 156-189. doi:10.1080/08959280902743709

Abstract: A meta-analysis summarizing results of 187 studies reporting cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between job satisfaction and personality is described. The Big Five factor of Neuroticism related most strongly and negatively to job satisfaction (–.25), with the other factors ranging from .16 (Conscientiousness) to –.02 (Openness to Experience). Job satisfaction was positively related to internal locus of control (LOC), positive affectivity, and Type A (achievement striving). Results showed negative relationships with external LOC, trait anger, Machiavellianism, negative affectivity/trait anxiety, and Type A (global and impatience/irritability). Job satisfaction had a very weak, negative correlation with narcissism that was indistinguishable from zero. These relationships were similar, although the effect sizes were generally not as strong, when examined in a longitudinal context. The distinctiveness of Extraversion and positive affectivity, as well as that of global and composite measures of job satisfaction, are discussed.

An earlier meta-analysis on the impact of personality on job satisfaction distinguishes between studies that take a direct vs. indirect approach to empirically testing that relationship. Consider how the distinction between direct and indirect approaches might impact the more recent Bruk-Lee, et al. (2009) meta-analysis (above):

Dormann, C., & Zapf, D. (2001). Job satisfaction: A meta-analysis of stabilities. Journal Of Organizational Behavior22(5), 483-504. doi:10.1002/job.98

Abstract: Evidence suggesting that job satisfaction is caused by individual dispositions is reviewed, and stability coefficients for job satisfaction in previous studies are analysed with a meta-anjilytic procedure. Previous longitudinal studies analysing job changer samples imply an upper limit estimate of 0.51 for direct dispositional influences on job satisfaction. A study of job changers considering the stability of working conditions suggests that this estimate has to be considerably corrected downwards. At present, it is concluded that it is more likely that dispositions indirectly affect job satisfaction via selection and self-selection processes. Implications for job satisfaction as a tool for organizational assessment are discussed.

The following meta-analysis examined a broad spectrum of the antecedents and outcomes of the attitude of pay level satisfaction:

Williams, M. L., McDaniel, M. A., & Nguyen, N. T. (2006). A meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of pay level satisfaction. Journal Of Applied Psychology91(2), 392-413. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.2.392

Abstract: This study reports results from a meta-analysis of 28 correlates of pay level satisfaction involving 240 samples from 203 studies conducted over the past 35 years. Results are presented in 4 categories: primary determinants, antecedents, correlates, and outcomes of pay satisfaction. The authors controlled for pay in examining relations between correlates and pay level satisfaction, as suggested by theory and when primary studies were available to do so. The authors found support for many of the relations suggested by a theoretical model and also note some limitations in the research that has tested this model. The authors recommend changes and additions to the model and suggest additional primary research in specific areas.

Moderators

Wright and Bonett (2002) meta-analytically test the moderating impact of employee tenure on the relationship between organizational commitment (as the IV) and job performance (as the DV):

Wright, T. A., & Bonett, D. G. (2002). The Moderating Effects of Employee Tenure on the Relation Between Organizational Commitment and Job Performance: A Meta-Analysis. Journal Of Applied Psychology87(6), 1183-1190. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.87.6.1183

Abstract: This meta-analysis investigated the correlation between attitudinal commitment and job performance for 3,630 employees obtained from 27 independent studies across various levels of employee tenure. Controlling for employee age and other nuisance variables, the authors found that tenure had a very strong nonlinear moderating effect on the commitment–performance correlation, with correlations tending to decrease exponentially with increasing tenure. These findings do not appear to be the result of differences across studies in terms of the type of performance measure (supervisory vs. self), type of tenure (job vs. organizational), or commitment measure (Organizational Commitment Questionnaire [L. W. Porter, R. M. Steers, R. T. Mowday, & P. V. Boulian, 1974] vs. other). The implications and future research directions of these results are discussed.

In the following meta- analysis, the job attitudes of affective commitment and job satisfaction serve as the DV, with HR practices as the IV, and Age – which is the focus of the study, as moderating the relationship between HR practices and job attitudes:

Kooij, D. M., Jansen, P. W., Dikkers, J. E., & De Lange, A. H. (2010). The influence of age on the associations between HR practices and both affective commitment and job satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal Of Organizational Behavior31(8), 1111-1136. doi:10.1002/job.666

Abstract: Research on the association between high commitment Human Resource (HR) practices and work-related outcomes at the individual level rarely focuses on age differences. To fill this knowledge gap, a meta-analysis has been conducted to examine how the relationships between the availability of high commitment HR practices, as perceived by employees, and affective commitment and job satisfaction change with age. Drawing on Selection, Optimization, and Compensation (SOC) theory and on Regulatory Focus theory, we identify a bundle of maintenance HR practices and a bundle of development HR practices, and hypothesize that the association between maintenance HR practices and work-related attitudes strengthens with age, and that the association between development HR practices and work-related attitudes weakens with age. Our meta-analysis of 83 studies reveals that, in line with social exchange and signaling theories, employees’ perceptions of HR practices are positively related to their work-related attitudes, and that calendar age influences this relationship largely as expected. These results are discussed in light of the above mentioned theories.