Findings from an assessment of a 70-year-old patient with swelling in his ankles include jugular venous pusations

Findings from an assessment of a 70-year-old patient with swelling in his ankles include jugular venous pusations, 5 cm above the sternal angle when the head of his bed is eleveted 45°. The FNP knows that this finding indicate: 

a. Decreased fluid volume. 

b. Increased cardiac output. 

c. Narrowing of jugular veins. 

d. Elevated pressure related to heart failure