Epidemiologic Analysis of HIV/AIDS in America
History of HIV/AIDS
•HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).
•Researchers found the earliest case ofor HIV in the blood sample of a man in DRC (Whiteside, 2016).
• First cases of AIDS in the U.S. were reported in June, 1981.
•By 1984, HIV was discovered to cause AIDS and 3064 were diagnosed with the condition out of which 1292 died.
• Since then, the epidemic of HIV Epidemic Analysis New HIV Diagnoses in the US and Dependent Areas by Age, 2017 Epidemic analysis Prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the U.S.
• 1.1 million individuals in the U.S. contracted the disease and are living with the infection and one in seven (17%) are unaware of their status (CDC, 2018)
•There were 38,500 new infections in 2018 and 6,000 AIDS related deaths.
• Since the onset of the epidemic, 692,790 people have died from related illnesses (Singh et al., 2018).
•African Americans are affected more than other ethnic sets and groups that accounts for 44 percent for all new infections in 2014 (CDC, 2018).
Causes and Effects Causes
•HIV is caused by a virus and can be transmitted or contracted through sexual contact with an infected person, blood transfusion, or from the mother to the unborn child during pregnancy, childbirth, or through breast-feeding.
•Risk indicators include unprotected sex, use of intravenous drugs, uncircumcised persons, and those having STIs. Effects
•The infection weakens the immune system making the body vulnerable to developing many infections like TB, candidiasis,
• Some cancers such as lymphoma that starts in the white blood cells is also common with HIV/AIDS. Prevention
•Consistent use of condoms during sexual intercourse.
•Negative people can take Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) treatment before exposure to HIV (CDC, 2018).
•Harm reduction interventions like opioid substitution therapy (OST).
• Preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT).
•HIV prevention campaigns such as ‘Act Against AIDS’ campaign. Forecasted population to benefit from PREP
•Moore, R. D. (2011). Epidemiology of HIV infection in the United States: implications for linkage to care. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 52(suppl_2), S208-S213.
•CDC. (2018). Statistics Overview | Statistics Center | HIV/AIDS | CDC. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/statistics/overview/index.html
•Whiteside, A. (2016). HIV & AIDS: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press.
• Singh, S., Song, R., Johnson, A. S., McCray, E., & Hall, H. I. (2018). HIV Incidence, Prevalence, and Undiagnosed Infections in US Men Who Have Sex With Men. Annals Of Internal Medicine, 168(10), 685-694.