Standards of Practice for Culturally Competent Nursing Care

Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 1 of 35

Standards of Practice for Culturally Competent Nursing Care Executive Summary A task force of the Expert Panel for Global Nursing and Health of the American Academy of Nursing, along with members of the Transcultural Nursing Society, has developed a set of standards for cultural competence in nursing practice. The aim of this project was to define standards that can be universally applied by nurses around the world in the areas of clinical practice, research, education, and administration, especially by nurses involved in direct patient care. The document includes a Preface and 12 Standards: Standard 1. Social Justice Standard 2. Critical Reflection Standard 3. Knowledge of Cultures Standard 4. Culturally Competent Practice Standard 5. Cultural Competence in HealthCare Systems and Organizations Standard 6. Patient Advocacy and Empowerment Standard 7. Multicultural Workforce Standard 8. Education and Training in Culturally Competent Care Standard 9. Cross Cultural Communication Standard 10. Cross Cultural Leadership Standard 11. Policy Development Standard 12. Evidence-Based Practice and Research For each standard, a definition, supporting rationale, and numerous suggestions for implementation are provided. A glossary of terms is appended. All standards are based on the concepts of social justice and human rights, as defined by the United Nations and the International Council of Nurses. These concepts are manifested at a systems or governmental level by political, economic, and social policies that exhibit impartiality and objectivity. All task force members have experience working with peoples from a variety of cultures throughout the world. In developing this document, the task force reviewed more than 50 documents on cultural competence published by nursing and health care organizations worldwide. In addition, an on-line survey solicited comments from nurses in many countries. Responses from nurses representing a variety of settings and educational backgrounds were incorporated into the final document. Every attempt was made to develop standards that can be used globally. 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 2 of 35 Standards of Practice for Culturally Competent Nursing Care PREFACE The purpose of this document is to initiate a discussion of a set of universally applicable standards of practice for culturally competent care that nurses around the globe may use to guide clinical practice, research, education, and administration. The recipient of the nursing care described in these standards is assumed to be an individual, a family, a community, or a population. These standards are based on a framework of social justice(1), that is, the belief that every individual and group is entitled to fair and equal rights and participation in social, educational, economic, and, specifically in this context, healthcare opportunities. Through the application of the principles of social justice and the provision of culturally competent care, inequalities in health outcomes may be reduced. The worldwide shortage of nurses and the global migration of both nurses and populations have heightened the need to educate nurses to deliver culturally competent care for an increasingly diverse patient population, regardless of geographic location.(2)(3) This need served as the primary impetus for this work. Cultural standards exist within political, economic, and social systems. Many health organizations throughout the world have defined care for their specific populations from the perspective of these systems. The variation among standards and the context within which standards are practiced precludes a single set that fits all cultures. In preparing these standards, nearly 50 relevant documents from nursing organizations around the world were examined, as well as related materials from other healthcare professions, governmental, non-governmental (NGO), and health and human service organizations. Examples included, but were not limited to the following: the United Nations’ Declaration of Human Rights,(4) the International Council of Nurses (ICN)’s Nurses and Human Rights,(5) the Nursing Council of New Zealand’s Code of Conduct for Nurses,(6) the National Association of Social Workers’ Standards for Cultural Competence in Social Work Practice,(7) the World Health Organization’s Declaration of Alma Alta,(8) the American Nurses Association (ANA)’s Code of Ethics,(9), The ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses, (10).and the American Association of the Colleges of Nursing (AACN) Toolkits (11.) These 12 standards can serve as a guide and resource for nurses in practice, administration, education and research by emphasizing cultural competence as a 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 3 of 35 priority of care for the populations they serve. The authors acknowledge that there may not be one single set of standards that reflects all of the values of the global nursing community, but they hope this work embodies a “best practices” approach that will enhance culturally competent nursing care and health care around the globe. The authors recognize that there are variations in the interpretations of terms related to cultural competence. Therefore a glossary is included at the end of this document. STANDARD 1: SOCIAL JUSTICE Professional nurses shall promote social justice for all. The applied principles of social justice guide decisions of nurses related to the patient, family, community, and other health care professionals. Nurses will develop leadership skills to advocate for socially just policies. Social justice evolves from values of impartiality and objectivity at a systems or governmental level and is founded on principles of fairness, equity, respect for self and human dignity, and tolerance.(12, 13, 14) Practicing social justice is acting in accordance with fair treatment regardless of economic status, race, ethnicity, age, citizenship, disability, or sexual orientation.”(13, pg 29) Social justice and human rights issues are interwoven throughout the principles stated above. By focusing on social justice as a standard of cultural competence, we are consistent with the perspective addressed by the International Council of Nurses: “We speak as advocates for all those we serve, and for all the underserved, insisting that social justice, prevention, care, and cure be the right of every human being.”(15) Ethical principles, which may differ among cultures, are derived from an individual’s beliefs as to the correctness of an action. (16) In contrast, principles of social justice are based on a broader systems view that expands the nurse’s sphere of influence to populations and health care systems. For example, Giddings’ model of social consciousness notes power imbalances within health care systems regarding who received care.(17) Reimer-Kirkham, Van Hofwegen, and Harwood urged social transformation through transformative learning.(18) One of the outcomes of a liberal arts education at the baccalaureate level is the development of leadership skills. These skills are founded on knowledge derived from the humanities and social sciences as well as from natural sciences. Leadership skills 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 4 of 35 prepare nurses to advocate for social justice. For example, nurses are expected to develop a “commitment to the health of vulnerable populations and the elimination of health disparities.”(13, pg 26) Leadership skills prepare nurses to advocate for social justice as espoused by Barthum by promoting “empowerment, liberation and relief of suffering, and oppression.” (19, p. 304) Values are reflected in policies regarding human rights, such as the right to protection from oppression. Social justice demands fairness in the implementation of policies. Nurses shall advocate for principles of social justice within the health care arena and support organizational and governmental policies that demonstrate social justice. Nurses also will educate populations to advocate for themselves in matters of social justice. Suggestions for Implementation of Standard 1 1. Incorporate content related to concepts of social justice in nursing education curricula that include a broad concept of populations and communities as a focus of practice. 2. Provide workshops on how to analyze policies to determine fairness, equity, respect, and tolerance. 3. Conduct symposia focusing on specific issues of social injustice. 4. Advocate for public policies that address solutions to social injustice. 5. Establish workshops to train nurses to be leaders in areas of social justice. 6. Develop Advanced Practice nurse consultants to mentor others to advocate for the elimination of health disparities and quality of life. 7. Fund research on issues of social injustice. 8. Host clinical and research workshops and conferences to disseminate evidence on effective approaches to correcting social injustice. STANDARD 2. CRITICAL REFLECTION Nurses shall engage in critical reflection of their own values, beliefs, and cultural heritage in order to have an awareness of how these qualities and issues can impact culturally congruent nursing care. Understanding one’s own cultural values and beliefs as well as the culture of others is essential if nursing care is to be not only appropriate but deemed effective by the patient, family, community and population. Self-awareness, as the initial step, is the 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 5 of 35 personal process of identifying one’s own values and beliefs. This awareness enables each individual to analyze personal feelings as a component of reflection. (20) “Critical reflexivity is a personal analysis that involves challenging personal beliefs and assumptions to improve professional and personal practice.”(21) Critical reflection goes beyond solely awareness by examining and critiquing the assumptions of one’s values and beliefs. It includes an examination of one’s own cultural values that have the potential to be in conflict with the values of others, and as a result, hinder therapeutic relationships and effective patient care outcomes. Reflective thinking includes actions, evaluation, and critical inquiry, (22) and can, in turn, further increase personal cultural awareness. (23) It would be detrimental, “…both to refuse to open up in order to protect cultural identity and to reject cultural identity in order to go with the current of globalization and internationalization.”(24) “Reflection is an integral part of growth and development, as well as the provision of quality nursing care.” (25) This process should begin with the novice student and continue throughout the professional life of any healthcare provider. Respect for other cultures is fundamental. (10) “Developing understanding [of cultural values and beliefs] may be one of the most urgent tasks facing our generation and may determine the fate of all future generations.” (26) Suggestions for Implementation of Standard 2 1. Encourage application of standards of cultural congruence in practice based on critical reflection. 2. Hold small group sessions that focus on the application of critical reflection in culturally congruent nursing care practice. 3. Develop policies that demonstrate the importance of recognizing personal values that can impact culturally congruent nursing care. 4. Host programs and workshops that encourage critical reflection and self-awareness of values and beliefs. 5. Host programs to expand understanding of different cultures, customs, social and healthcare practices that impact nursing care. 6. Demonstrate the importance of reflection on cultural heritage through role modeling. 7. Encourage critical reflection among peers and staff members. 8. Include interdisciplinary members in health care and nursing teams to foster greater understanding of self and nursing approaches in clinical settings. 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 6 of 35 STANDARD 3. KNOWLEDGE of CULTURES Nurses shall gain an understanding of the perspectives, traditions, values, practices, and family systems of culturally diverse individuals, families, communities and populations for whom they care, as well as a knowledge of the complex variables that affect the achievement of health and well being. Cultural competence is a dynamic, lifelong learning process.(27) Understanding the process for assessing cultural patterns and factors that influence individual and group differences is critical in preventing overgeneralization and stereotyping. Knowledge of the following topics is essential in order to provide evidence-based, culturally competent nursing care: • The impact of culture on attitudes, values, traditions, and behavior. • Health-seeking behaviors of individuals, families, communities and populations. • The impact of language and communication styles of individuals, families, and communities. • The impact of health policy on culturally diverse groups, particularly targeting those who are economically disadvantaged, vulnerable and underserved. • Resources (personal/familial social support networks, professional human resources, agencies, and research) that can be used by culturally diverse individuals, families, and communities.(28) (10) (7) Professional nurses need specific knowledge about the major groups of culturally diverse individuals, families, and communities they serve, including, but not limited to: specific cultural practices regarding health, definitions of, and beliefs about, health and illness; biological variations, cross-cultural worldviews; acculturation, and life experiences, such as refugee and immigration status, as well as a history of oppression, violence, and trauma suffered. (29) Culturally competent assessment skills are essential to facilitate communication, to demonstrate respect for cultural diversity, and to ask culturally sensitive questions about beliefs and practices that need to be considered in the delivery of health care. The more knowledge a nurse has about a specific culture, the more accurate and complete the cultural assessment will be. For example, if nurses are not aware that many Hispanics use traditional healers such as curandros, masjistas, sobodoes, y(j)erberos, and esperititas, they will not know how to ask specific and appropriate questions about the individual’s use of these alternative practitioners and their therapies. 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 7 of 35 Because nurses cannot know the attributes of all cultures, it is essential to use a cultural assessment model or framework. Thus nurses should seek specialized knowledge from the body of literature in transcultural nursing practice, which focuses on specific and universal attitudes, knowledge, and skills used to assess, plan, implement, and evaluate culturally competent nursing care. (30) In addition, nurses need knowledge of the types of institutional, class, cultural, and language barriers that may prevent culturally diverse individuals and families from accessing health care. Knowledge can also be gained from associated disciplines such as anthropology and sociology. Suggestions for Implementation of Standard 3 1. Generate and/or provide staff education modules on the general principles of culturally competent care. 2. Generate and/or provide staff education modules focusing on increasing specific knowledge of the most common cultural groups served. 3. As a group of staff nurses on a clinical unit or in a clinical agency, establish journal clubs/staff in-service sessions to review current literature about the most common cultural groups served to ensure evidence based practice. 4. As a group of staff nurses on a clinical unit or in a clinical agency, generate monthly cultural awareness activities for you and your colleagues that promote cultural competence (i.e., culturally diverse speakers, media, ethnic food) 5. As a staff nurse working with colleagues and a science librarian (if available), gain information literacy skills in order to access electronic sources to gain current knowledge of cultures and cultural assessment tools (diversity websites, cross cultural health care case studies) as well as multi-media sources and professional webinars. Standard 4. Culturally Competent Practice Nurses shall use cross cultural knowledge and culturally sensitive skills in implementing culturally congruent nursing care. Cross cultural practice in nursing involves a complex combination of knowledge of diverse cultural practices and worldviews, reflective self-awareness of own cultural worldview, attitudes about cultural differences, and skills in cross cultural assessment and communications. (31, 32, 33, 34) Cross cultural practice begins with a thorough assessment of the physical, psychological and cultural foci as the basis of the planning of care. The cultural focus of assessment 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 8 of 35 entails examining the sociocultural, ethical and sociopolitical features that are uniquely situated within the health-illness continuum of diverse clients. Inherent in effective assessment is cross cultural communication skills, utilized to maximize common understanding and shared meaning of the health-illness encounter of the culturally diverse client. (35) Competence in cross cultural practice is a process requiring experience and continued interest in learning and in sharpening cultural assessment and communication skills. While nurses may achieve a certain degree of competence in some diverse cultures, they cannot be totally competent in all cultures. (36.) Yet, nurses are more likely to achieve culturally competent cross cultural care when the complex combination of cultural knowledge, awareness, attitudes and skills are used dynamically for cultural assessment of clients’ health beliefs and practices, and for negotiating culturally congruent health interventions through skillful cross cultural communication.(37,38, 39) Implementation of this standard will be influenced by the level of nurses’ knowledge of client’s cultural health beliefs and practices, by their intentional reflection on their own attitudes, by their skill in cross-cultural communication, (36, 40, 41) and by their ability to assess and implement culturally congruent care. To ensure adequate preparation of nursing students, these variables must be fully integrated throughout the nursing curriculum. To enhance nurses’ competency in cross cultural practice, clinical institutions and health care facilities need to provide ongoing educational workshops as well as mentoring and training geared toward the continuous development of nurses’ cultural knowledge and skills for effective cross-cultural practice. Suggestions for implementation of Standard 4 For Staff Nurses: 1. Establish a trusting relation through open and sensitive communication, active listening and respect of client’s cultural beliefs and practices. 2. Obtain focused information about client’s presenting illness and his/her perception of causes of illness and beliefs about cultural treatment modalities. 3. Conduct an assessment of client’s physical, psychological and cultural attributes and use assessment data for planning and prioritizing of care. 4. Negotiate and implement culturally congruent care and evaluate health outcomes. For Healthcare Organizations: 1. Provide educational and training workshop to enhance nurses’ cultural knowledge about the ethnically diverse clients who receive health services in the facility. 2. Provide educational workshop to enhance nurses’ skills in cross-cultural assessment 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 9 of 35 and communication. 3. Develop policies and procedures for ensuring effective cross cultural nursing practice. 4. Develop assessment strategies to ensure competence of nurses in meeting the health care of clients from various cultures. 5. Develop Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) consultants to mentor and facilitate implementation of best evidence-based cross-cultural practice. 6. Host clinical and research workshops/conferences to disseminate evidence on effective approaches to culturally congruent nursing practice. Standard 5. Cultural Competence in Healthcare Systems and Organizations Healthcare organizations should provide the structure and resources necessary to evaluate and meet the cultural and language needs of their diverse clients. Health care organizations and agencies are responsible for providing the infrastructure necessary to deliver safe, culturally congruent, and compassionate care to those who seek its services. The executive leadership of the organization is responsible for developing and maintaining this infrastructure by reflecting these principles in its mission, vision and values of the organization. (42) In addition, the organization’s leadership is responsible for implementing policies and procedures aimed at optimizing the delivery of care to culturally diverse populations and for assuring that these policies are integrated throughout the organization. (43) Community engagement is an essential function of all health care systems, not only to assess and meet the health care needs of the culturally diverse population it serves, but also to build a critical level of trust and collaboration between potential patients and providers. Inclusion of community members as partners in such activities as organizational decision-making, program development, and information and education exchange leads to the development of culturally relevant interventions that may result in improved outcomes among those served. Suggestions for implementation of Standard 5 1. Convene a system-wide, managerial-level task force to oversee and take responsibility for diversity-related issues within the organization. . (44) 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 10 of 35 2. Establish an internal budget to support the provision of culturally appropriate care, such as for the hiring of interpreters, producing multi-language patient education materials, adding signage in different languages, etc. (45) 3. Develop policies and activities aimed at actively recruiting and sustaining a culturally diverse workforce. 4. Provide orientation and annual in-service training in cultural competence for all levels of staff, including upper management, department heads to entry-level staff in all departments with patient/client contact. 5. Include cultural competence requirements in job descriptions as well as performance measures and promotion criteria. 6. Develop and use a data collection system to review the current and emergent demographic trends for the geographic area served by the agency, as well as those who receive care. (46) 7. Obtain patient/client feedback, such as, patient satisfaction data, to determine the effectiveness and appropriateness of their services and to help identify issues that could be better addressed in the organization. 8. Collaborate with other health care organizations within the community to share ideas and resources for meeting the needs of culturally diverse populations. 9. Engage in community activities by bringing health care to the population, by means such as health fairs, blood pressure screening, lay person’s health library, well child screenings, etc. 10. Enlist participation by community members in organizational committees, such as the Ethics or Research committee, Educational Program committees, Patient Education committees, or program planning committees, such as for Smoking Cessation, Pulmonary or Cardiac rehabilitation programs, Exercise and Weight Loss programs etc. STANDARD 6. PATIENT ADVOCACY AND EMPOWERMENT Nurses shall recognize the effect of healthcare policies, delivery systems and resources on their patient populations, and shall empower and advocate for their patients as indicated. Nurses shall advocate for the inclusion of their patient’s cultural beliefs and practices in all dimensions of their health care when possible. Nurses understand that all patients enjoy social and cultural rights necessary for their dignity and free development. (47) Culturally competent nurses, however, recognize the harmful effects of ignorance, hate, ethnocentrism, prejudice and bias on the health of their patients and patient populations. Nurses serve as patient advocates by providing 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 11 of 35 or facilitating a voice for their patient’s needs and concerns. They also ensure the autonomy of their patient populations and their right to safeguard their values, address their health and healthcare needs, and to voice their concerns. (48) According to the World Health Organization, advocacy is a process that also affects many levels and ranges of outcomes. (28) Nurses ensure patient autonomy by facilitating their patient’s ability to access and use quality healthcare in a manner that accommodates their cultural values, beliefs and behaviors. Nurses advocate for their patients within a collaborative framework that respects the needs, wishes and priorities of their patients. They practice cultural safety by identifying, understanding and respecting the bio-physical, economic, psychosocial, spiritual and cultural characteristics of the patient, the patient’s family, the environment and the patient’s community. (6) This occurs within a process of respectful collaboration to reach agreedupon health goals, to individualize health education to the individual patient and patient population, and to select and provide health care. Nurses need specific competencies and skills to advocate for, support and safeguard patients against devaluation or obliteration of their cultural histories, cultural expressions and cultural experiences in a global community. These skills include self reflection and self knowledge, respectful communications, cultural knowledge, accessing resources, and facilitating communication in the patient’s language. Empowering nurses by providing safe, positive practice environments and selfimprovement resources by employers also improves patient outcomes. (49) The expectation is that culturally competent nurses reflect these values of advocacy, autonomy and cultural safety in their practice. Implementation of this standard will be influenced by a number of factors and contextual variables, such as the nurse’s role, patient population needs and culture, and above all, the internal and external resources of the nurse. Key internal resources will be the nurse’s self-knowledge, and respect for the cultural-based values, beliefs and behaviors of both patient population and self. Suggestions for Implementation of Standard 6 1. Use a systems perspective and a culturally competent approach in practice. Consider the patient as part of a family, influenced by a wider socio/cultural system. This approach facilitates the nurses’ identification and use of the patients’ community, neighborhood, religious, perhaps political, familial and employment resources to support the patient’s continued wellness, recovery, or rehabilitation. 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 12 of 35 2. Consider each patient situation as unique during initial assessment and throughout the nursing process. This requires the use of effective listening skills such as letting patients tell their stories without interruption, accepting patients’ expressed needs and feelings, and eliminating all possible distracting noises or actions when interacting with patients. 3. Respond to needs in terms of challenges that can be addressed rather than fixed problems. Using this challenge-based approach allows nurses to identify needs and available resources that can be used to address these challenges. 4. Advocate for and with patients. For instance, make sure that patient or family grievances are channeled to the proper source so they can be responded to and addressed quickly and responsibly. 5. Protect and understand the uniqueness of all patients. For instance, nurses can create a forum at their place of employment, to examine cultural safety and service delivery, and the challenges of providing respectful interactions with their patient populations. 6. Provide culturally competent care. Nurses can attend on-site or online seminars, workshops, presentations, or staff education sessions on cultural competence for nurses and other healthcare providers, to inform, update, expand, and practice their interaction and responding skills with different patient populations. 7. When possible, accommodate the patient’s cultural values, beliefs and practices during all interactions and when planning and providing nursing care. For instance, it is a practice in some cultures for providers to follow the patient’s family’s wishes not to disclose that a disease or condition is terminal. In these cultures, the provider will share that diagnosis with the family, who will decide where, when and how to disclose the diagnosis to the patient. STANDARD 7. MULTICULTURAL WORKFORCE Nurses shall actively engage in the effort to ensure a multicultural workforce in health care settings. One measure to achieve a multicultural workforce is through strengthening of recruitment and retention effort in the hospital and academic setting. Nurses have come to realize the significance of an increasingly diverse workforce as one means of addressing culturally competent care. As our population becomes increasingly diverse, so too must our workforce strive to mirror these demographic changes. While matching workforce to client populations we serve and students we teach can be an effective strategy for bridging cultural differences between nurse and client, it cannot be 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 13 of 35 the only strategy. “All nurses need to be able to provide care for clients who are not like themselvesʺ . (50) Or, in the case of nursing faculty, be prepared to create learning environments that celebrate diversity. Cultural competency is not just a good idea, it is a responsibility, and therefore must be an integral part of the fabric of our organizations, as it benefits our students, clients, and our health care institutions. The Sullivan Commission on Diversity in the Health Care Workforce Report (51) corroborates and offers three principles to guide future activities in this area: to increase the diversity in the health professions, the culture of professional schools must change; new and non-traditional paths to the health professions should be explored; and, commitments must be at the highest levels of our government and in the private sector. Benefits of a diverse workforce include enhancement of a skill set that includes working towards cultural competency; improved access to high quality health care services; refined management of the health care system; provision of competent role models; and strengthening of the research agenda. Increasing cultural competence within the profession requires tangible efforts to recruit and retain a diverse workforce of prospective nurses, many of whom will bring ʺindigenousʺ cultural competence to the profession which will allow for additional opportunities for the acquisition of culturally competent skills by all nurses. Furthermore, with a focus on migration, the current workforce requires a sound knowledge of diversity in order to transition to a more culturally diverse group of clinicians, educators, researchers and administrators. In the final analysis, the ultimate goal is a health care system and workforce capable of delivering the highest quality care to every patient, regardless of race, lifestyle, gender, age, cultural background, religion, political beliefs, individuality, or English proficiency. (50) Suggestions for Implementation of Standard 7 Recruitment and Retention of Diverse Faculty and Students: 1. Identify within your academic setting, experts, key players and the resources available to assist in goal and program development in the area of recruitment and retention. 2. Annually contact and dialogue with culturally diverse alumni for the purpose of developing a mentoring network for support and to assist in recruitment efforts of culturally diverse graduate nurses. 3. Provide prospective faculty and students with information (preferably internet based) on diversity in your academic setting, as a recruitment tool. 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 14 of 35 4. Provide school program recruitment offerings for primary and secondary level students focusing on nursing as a career choice. 5. Ensure faculty and student evaluations include cultural competency goals and outcomes to evaluate the success of retention efforts. 6. Provide new faculty and students, orientation content including expectations, mission statement and values, in regards to cultural diversity. 7. Ensure mission and philosophy statements reflect diversity values within your academic institution, focusing on respect and inclusion. 8. Provide annual cultural competency learning experiences including, workshops, conferences, on-line training and immersion experiences. 9. Encourage faculty and students to support and participate in community healthcare partnerships/projects/research, focusing on cultural diversity/or health care disparities. 10. Identify faculty to review curriculum for cultural competency and health disparities content annually, making recommendations accordingly. 11. Ensure recruiters reach out to primary and secondary school students via “Career Days” activities. Recruitment and Retention of Hospital and Clinic Staff: 1. Identify within your health care provider setting, experts, key players and the resources available to assist in goal and program development in the area of recruitment and retention. 2. Identify barriers to goals for recruitment and retention, with resultant infrastructure change. 3. Develop & implement a strategic plan that includes recruitment of nurses from diverse backgrounds. 4. Provide annual organizational cultural competency learning experiences for staff nurses. 5. In the case of rural or isolated provider locations with limited resources, explore technology capabilities for linking with organizations that provide cultural competency resources. 6. Ensure administrator and staff evaluations include cultural competency goals and outcomes to be evaluated annually. 7. Garner administrative support for and initiate a Cultural Competence committee of staff nurses, nurse managers and head nurses to oversee and coordinate nursing activities, programs, workshops, etc., for the purpose of raising cultural awareness and assisting staff nurses work towards achieving cultural competence in the areas of knowledge development and best practice guidelines. Topic areas might include: • Communication skills • Review of cultural competence education media 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 15 of 35 • Cultural information resources (staff role models, in-house experts, books, references, etc.) for the primary populations served • Legal, ethical and moral impact on patient care 8. Encourage and enable your nursing staff to support and participate in community healthcare partnerships, projects, and research, focusing on cultural diversity/or health care disparities. 9. Increase retention of nurses from diverse backgrounds by supporting education, practice and research efforts through grant and scholarship opportunities. 10. Include in your organization’s new staff orientation, expectations, mission statement and values, in regards to cultural diversity. Content might include: a. Practice standards for cultural competence. b. Cultural competency critical thinking exercises taught via interactive videos, role play, case studies and dialogue. c. Participation in cultural simulation group activities. 11. Examples of Specific Cultural Competency Resources: a. The CLAS Standards (National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services) in health care. (45) b. Bafa Bafa” (53) and “BARNGA” (54) Cultural Simulations. c. Culturally Competent Nursing Modules. (55) d. Cultural Competency Curriculum Modules (designed for physicians, but also carries accreditation for APNs). (56) e. “Coming together” (2008) DVD (57) f. “Dignity and Respect: Showing our patients cultural sensitivity” (2006)DVD (58) STANDARD 8. EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN CULTURALLY COMPETENT CARE Nurses shall be educationally prepared to promote and provide culturally congruent health care. Knowledge and skills necessary for assuring that nursing care is culturally congruent shall be included in global health care agendas that mandate formal education and clinical training, as well as required ongoing, continuing education for all practicing nurses. The International Council of Nurses (ICN) acknowledges the requirement for nurses to receive “appropriate initial and ongoing education and training as well as life-long learning to practice competently within their scope of practice” (59) and that those who “are major participants in the planning and direction of nursing education, nursing services, regulatory bodies, and other health related activities” (59) will responsibly fulfill this global scope of nursing education and practice. Governmental agencies, NGOs, and 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 16 of 35 national nursing associations are responsible for overseeing and regulating the education of nurses. The ICN position supports the integration of cultural care knowledge and training for cultural competence into all levels of nursing education. In addition, continuing education of nurses in culturally competent care is increasingly becoming a requirement for accreditation of healthcare organizations by such agencies as the Joint Commission of the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JACHO). (60) Education for culturally competent care encompasses knowledge of the cultural values, beliefs, and healthcare practices of individuals and/or groups to whom they provide care. Specifically, the nurse should be prepared to conduct a cultural health assessment and subsequently provide culture-specific, optimal health care for individuals, as determined by their condition and healthcare needs. Suggestions for Implementation of Standard 8 1. Use teaching strategies that: a. Increase the understanding of other cultures and peoples b. Increase the recognition of global sociopolitical issues that relate to health c. Increase the commitment to make a difference d. Provide for experiencing personal and professional growth e. Contribute to professional development in the host country f. Make interpersonal and intercultural connections g. Develop sensitive and effective cultural competence (60) 2. Require that all levels of education include culturally competent care knowledge and practice skills. (61) 3. Include faculty in nursing education who are transcultural nursing experts in order to provide consultation, formal education, continuing education, and practice skills for culturally competent care. 4. Provide coursework specific to the content of cultural competency knowledge. 5. Integrate cultural knowledge and practice throughout nursing curricula. 6. Use transcultural, international, service-learning experiences that include involving students practicing in cultural environments different from their own, if resources permit. 7. Promote partnerships in education for culturally competent care as a strategy for increasing sensitivity and respect for other cultures. (62) 8. Include in the curriculum ways to establish international partnerships. 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 17 of 35 9. Encourage faculty to develop international experience and require student projects from developed partnerships with an international nursing program, if resources permit. 10. Develop continuing education programs for nursing staff that provides for cultural competency training. 11. Conduct faculty continuing education programs that increase faculty awareness of culturally bound learning and communication styles. 12. Celebrate cultural differences through institutional celebrations, special events, and activities. 13. Establish policies for zero tolerance for discrimination. 14. Utilize cultural immersion exchange programs. 15. Utilize role models to assist students and newly graduated nurses to respond appropriately to cultural experiences and expectations. 16. Utilize educators and nurses in practice from diverse backgrounds to develop a mentoring network. 17. Identify faculty and student barriers to tolerance, and make infrastructure modifications accordingly. STANDARD 9. CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION. Nurses shall use culturally competent verbal and nonverbal communication skills to identify client’s values, beliefs, practices, perceptions, and unique healthcare needs. Effective cultural communication demonstrates respect, dignity, and the preservation of human rights. (3) Failure in communication can easily be interpreted as bias, stereotyping, or prejudice and subsequently influence the quality of care. (30) Nurses must strive to comprehend clients’ healthcare needs through effective listening, attentive body language, and use of eye contact. Other cultural nonverbal communication may include perceptions of time and space, values of modesty, touch, silence, dress, provider gender, and other unique cultural patterns and expressions.(65) In addition, temporality in terms of past, present, and future orientation and the willingness to share thoughts and feelings with family, friends, strangers, and healthcare providers are important.(65) Familiarity with cultural context is essential for nurses to provide culturally competent communication. Cultural and environmental context refers to the totality of an event or experience that gives meaning to people’s expressions, interpretations, and social interaction. (66) If a client’s verbal language is unfamiliar, every attempt should be made to find a qualified interpreter, keeping in mind that cultural values, gender, age, and 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 18 of 35 socioeconomic status between the interpreter and the client influence the interpretation process. (67) The healthcare system should make every attempt to provide resources for interpretation. Bilingual staff with specific job description to assist with interpretation is helpful. Interpreters must ensure confidentiality, be knowledgeable about healthcare language, and conduct all sessions in an ethical manner. (7) Family members, especially children, should be used only as a last resort when qualified interpreters are not available because privacy issues and bias in interpretation are potential risks. If time and the patient’s condition permits, allow the client and interpreter to have a few minutes together before conducting a thorough assessment. The nurse should be present during the assessment to observe nonverbal communication, advocate for the client, and assist the interpreter as necessary. Clinically important care-specific phrases such as “Are you having pain?” spoken in the client’s language shows respect and willingness to value language and diversity. All print and other media must be selected with respect for the client’s language, cultural values, age. Before distribution, print material should be reviewed for accuracy, literacy level, and offensive language and pictures by individuals from the intended audience. Suggestions for Implementation of Standard 9 1. Train nurses in interviewing clients from diverse cultures as part of orientation programs. 2. Provide resources for translation and interpretation within the organization, when possible. 3. Provide accessible references for nurses to learn about specific cultures, ethnohistories, and common language terms for groups represented in the clinical setting. 4. Provide print and other media in the client’s preferred language. 5. Encourage nurses to observe for culturally specific paralanguage variations such as voice volume, tone, intonation, reflections, and willingness to share thoughts and feelings. 6. Include discussions on culturally specific values, beliefs, and practices in meetings and during in-service and continuing education programs. 7. Develop skills in using interpreters. 8. In hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare organizations, symbols and pictograms should be used whenever possible. 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 19 of 35 9. Provide clients with educational and discharge materials that are translated into their preferred language. 10. Use pain scales in the preferred language of the client and faces scales of the ethnicity of the client. 11. Continuously collect cultural data on assessments. 12. Resist judgmental attitudes such as “different is not as good”. 13. Recognize that the nurse’s beliefs and values may not be the same as the client’s. STANDARD 10. CROSS CULTURAL LEADERSHIP Nurses shall have the ability to influence individuals, groups and systems to achieve positive outcomes of culturally competent care for diverse populations. Nurses should be grounded in an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health and the knowledge that human ailments are reflective of longstanding social inequities. (68-72) Culturally competent nursing leadership promotes changes in self, other professionals and organizations to achieve positive health outcomes for individuals, families, communities and populations. Nurses should take a leadership role in designing organizational policies and systems of care that strive for equity in access to high quality care and treatment, protection of human rights, advocacy for social justice and achievement of optimal outcomes of care in diverse populations. Nurses should be actively engaged and facilitate involvement of their organizations in community development and empowerment through local, national and international partnerships.(8) Inherent in cross cultural leadership is the commitment to ongoing self- development in cultural competence. Cross cultural leadership requires self-awareness and selfreflection, sensitivity to cultural differences, and adaptability to various contexts of care. Nurses use leadership skills to implement system-wide programs for staff development in order to promote organizational cultural competence. Nurses need to assume a leadership role in promoting research and integration of best evidence in health promotion and care of culturally diverse patients and communities. (73)(74) Nurses should ensure adherence to national and international standards of health care and evidencebased practice, and model culturally competent adaptation of these standards to different life contexts of individuals, families and communities. (75) Suggestions for Implementation of Standard 10 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 20 of 35 1. Implement system-wide interdisciplinary programs for cultural competence development of organizational staff. 2. Implement culturally and linguistically appropriate care services responsive to the needs of the community (data collection of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic data on patients and communities, translation and interpretation services, patient navigators, accessible and affordable services). 3. Create collaborative partnerships to facilitate community participation in governance, organizational investment in the health of its communities and effective communication between providers and organizations, and the community of diverse consumers. 4. Establish systems for coordination care services with different healthcare organizations, government and non-governmental agencies, healthcare providers and lay communities in local, national and global contexts. 5. Develop monitoring system of assessing staff cultural competence, evaluating effectiveness of policies and programs, and patient and community satisfaction with care services specific to care equity and elimination of health and healthcare disparities. 6. Establish policies and systems to ensure quality improvement in care effectiveness of staff and the organization in addressing care needs of diverse patients and communities. 7. Provide support for staff participation in collaborative outcomes research, translational research, and in integrating best evidence in care services specific to diverse patient populations. For Staff Nurses: 1. Participate in training and mentoring of other multidisciplinary staff and subordinates in cultural competent care. 2. Engage in collaborative development of organizational policies and protocols to implement cultural competent care. 3. Participate in community activities, professional associations and organizational initiatives to promote delivery of culturally competent care. STANDARD 11: POLICY DEVELOPMENT. Nurses shall have the knowledge and skills to work with public and private organizations, professional associations and communities to establish policies and standards for comprehensive implementation and evaluation of culturally competent care. 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 21 of 35 Cultural competency needs a multi-level approach with assessments and interventions needed at the individual, organizational, group, and societal levels. Elimination of national and global health disparities necessitates changing healthcare delivery and social systems through policy development. (8) Policies have greater impact on changing systems and health of populations. Health achievement especially for vulnerable groups is intimately linked with socioeconomic, political situations and ecological factors with consequent cumulative risks to health. (68) (69) (76) Nurses should have the understanding of the sociopolitical structure and processes of policy making. Nurses should have the ability to work with different groups and organizations to establish policies addressing social and environmental inequities and disparities in health care. (77) (78) Involvement with professional and civic organizations provides a forum for understanding broad social issues affect health of populations and developing the skills in building effective coalitions at local, national and global arenas to effect change. (73) Suggestions for Implementation of Standard 11 1. Establish the structure and policies to reward membership and engagement of nurses in professional and civic organizations. 2. Develop programs and initiatives to facilitate involvement of the organization and nurses in communities. 3. Develop a system for linking nurses with appropriate mentors in the political process of policy development. 4. Implement continuing education programs to develop leadership and collaborative skills of nurses. 5. Build a forum to develop social consciousness of nurses and the capacity to evaluate programs and policies at the organizational and societal level. For Staff Nurses: 1. Participate in organizational committees to develop culturally competent delivery of services. 2. Increase own awareness of responsiveness of organizational and government policies to care needs of diverse patients. 3. Engage in community activities to identify the caring needs and gaps in care services from the community. 4. Use organizational leadership structure to create policies and protocols that address needs of diverse populations. 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 22 of 35 Standard 12: Evidence-Based Practice and Research Nurses shall base their practice on interventions that have been systematically tested and shown to be the most effective for the culturally diverse populations that they serve. In areas where there is a lack of evidence of efficacy, nurse researchers shall investigate and test interventions that may be the most effective in reducing the disparities in health outcomes. Evidence-based practice is an approach that bases clinical and administrative decisions and practice strategies on a combination of three sources of evidence: the best available research findings, clinical expertise, and patient values. (79)(80) The goal of evidence-based practice is to use the most effective nursing interventions to improve the health outcomes of the patients and clients. (81) To date, however, very few studies have used randomized controlled trials, which yield the higher levels of research evidence, to test culturally congruent interventions. Nevertheless, a large body of qualitative research has investigated cultural variations in healthcare values, beliefs, and practices that can guide the nurse in providing culturally congruent care. In order to reduce disparities in health outcomes,(82) nurse researchers need to conduct significantly more studies of effective interventions. Most cultural are descriptive and exploratory in nature and currently are providing the basis for future intervention studies. The need is increasingly urgent to determine which interventions are the most effective for patients, who may have a unique set of health values, beliefs and practices, as well as social and political circumstances influencing health status. In addition, the consequences of globalization and political unrest have caused large migrations of peoples to areas where the healthcare professionals are not familiar with patients’ ways of preserving health and treating illness. Nurse researchers have the ability and obligation to provide nurses with systematically-tested, clinically useful and effective interventions for culturally diverse populations. Suggestions for Implementation of Standard 12 1. Provide nursing staff with resources, such as, in-service classes or consultations, on improving library search skills for research studies. 2. Utilize librarian of local health science library to assist staff improve their skills in performing literature searches for evidence-based practice and nursing research studies. 3. Provide nursing staff with resources, such as consultation and mentoring with local nursing faculty, for improving research critique skills of the staff. 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 23 of 35 4. Establish unit-based, evidence-based practice journal clubs for staff nurses to review the cross cultural nursing and health literature. 5. Establish unit-based, evidence-based committees so that staff nurses can monitor patient satisfaction of clients from diverse cultural backgrounds and assess efficacy of care given. 6. Establish unit-based, evidence-based committees for staff nurses to investigate a cross cultural nursing problem that is unique to their unit. 7. Staff nurses can utilize research-based practice protocols developed by specialty organizations as guides. (83) 8. Form interdisciplinary team to develop a quality improvement project or research study, which capitalizes on varied areas of expertise in the research process. 9. Consult with local faculty for expertise in research process and study design. 10. Develop faculty teams of researchers to capitalize on varied expertise and to apply for funding. 11. Develop networks with clinical facilities with high proportions of patients from diverse populations in order to have sites for conducting research. 12. Participate with nursing colleagues in specialty organizations to establish a national agenda for transcultural/cross cultural nursing research to guide both educators and clinicians in selecting critical problems that need investigation. 13. Collaborate with national and international colleagues to design and implement large scale intervention studies of cultural phenomena. 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 24 of 35 GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Advocacy: “One of the most important roles of the nurse is to be a patient advocate–to protect the interests of patients when the patients themselves cannot because of illness or inadequate health knowledge.”(84) Autonomy for Culturally Congruent Health Care: The ability of the health care provider to make decisions on the use and quality of healthcare that accommodates personal cultural values, beliefs and behaviors.* Cross-Cultural: Any form of activity between members of different cultural groups; or, a comparative perspective on how cultural differences and similarities shape human behaviors and events.(85) (86) (87) Culture: “ Culture refers to integrated patterns of human behavior that include the language, thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions of racial, ethnic, religious, or social groups.”(88) “The totality of socially-transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, values, customs, lifeways, and all other products of human work and thought characteristics of a population of people that guides their worldview and decision making. These patterns may be explicit or implicit, are primarily learned and transmitted within the family, and are shared by the majority of the culture.”(89) (90) Cultural patterns can also be transmitted from outside the family by means of pressures exerted by society. Cultural and Linguistic Competence: “The way a client perceives illness, the specific disease and its associated symptoms are tied to the client’s underlying cultural values and beliefs.”(91) “A set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations.” (88) [Cultural] “competence implies having the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.”(88) Interpretation involves the verbal explanation of words or concepts from one language to another; whereas, translation refers to the rendering of a written document from one language to another. “The capacity of an organization and its personnel to communicate effectively, and convey information in a manner that is easily understood by diverse audiences including persons of limited English proficiency, those who have low literacy skills or are not literate, individuals with disabilities, and those who are deaf or hard of hearing. Linguistic competency requires organizational and provider capacity to respond effectively to the health and mental health literacy needs of populations served. 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 25 of 35 The organization must have policy, structures, practices, procedures, and dedicated resources to support this capacity.”(92) Cultural Congruence: Cultural congruence is the understanding and application of acceptable beliefs, ideas, and practices that result in an interpersonal, social, and intercultural understanding and acceptance of differences and similarities of all peoples within a worldview.* Cultural Safety: Health care practices that identify, understand and respect the biophysical, economic, psychosocial, spiritual and cultural characteristics of the patient, the patient’s family, the environment and the patient’s community. Safety occurs within a process of respectful collaboration to reach agreed-upon health goals, to individualize health education to the individual patient and patient population, and to select and provide health care. Culturally safe practices by the nurse protect patients against devaluation or obliteration of their cultural histories, cultural expressions and cultural experiences.(93) Diverse populations: Individuals, significant others and communities that represent the variety of populations, beliefs, cultures, ethnic groups, and representational societies from which they emanate.* Empowerment: Increasing the ability or opportunity of patients and their families to be in control of their health, spiritual, political, social and/or economic destinies.* Ethnocentrism: A universal tendency to believe that one’s own culture and worldview are superior to another’s. In the healthcare arena, it can prevent effective therapeutic communication when the healthcare provider and client are of different cultural or ethnic groups and each perceives their own culture to be superior. * Evidence-Based Practice: The practice of health care in which the practitioner systematically finds, appraises, and uses the most current and valid research findings as the basis for clinical decisions. (94) “The integration of the best research evidence


with clinical expertise, and patient values.” (95) Evidence-based Nursing is an approach to professional nursing practice that bases relevant decisions and practice strategies on the best available evidence, including research findings and, as appropriate, other credible, verifiable facts, data, or sources. (96) Multicultural: A concept or philosophy that recognizes that all cultures have a value of their own and must be equally represented or recognized in the broader society or 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 26 of 35 international context, and encourages enlightenment of others in the worthwhile contributions to society by those of diverse ethnic backgrounds.(85( (86) (87) Nonverbal communication: The forms of communication that include use of eye contact, facial expressions, use of touch, body language, spatial distancing, acceptable greetings, temporality in terms of past, present, or future orientation of worldview, clock versus social time, and the degree of formality in the use of names. .(97) These forms of non-verbal communication often vary among cultures. Nursing: “A health care profession that encompasses autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages, families, groups and communities, sick or well and in all settings. Nursing includes the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying people. Advocacy, promotion of a safe environment, research, participation in shaping health policy and in patient and health systems management, and education are also key nursing roles.”(98) Race and Ethnicity: Ethnicity is a cultural characteristic that connect a particular group or groups of people. Ethnicity is sometimes used as interchangeably with race. While ethnicity and race are related concepts, the concept of ethnicity is rooted in the idea of societal groups, marked especially by shared nationality, tribal affiliation, religious faith, shared language, or cultural and traditional origins and backgrounds.”(99) Race is rooted in the idea of biological classification according to morphological features such as skin color or facial characteristics. Conceptions of race as well as specific racial groupings are often controversial due to their political and sociological uses and implication. In English, ethnicity focuses more upon the connection to a perceived shared past and culture. In other languages, the corresponding terms for ethnicity and nationhood can be closer to each other.* Stereotype: A simplified standardized conception, image, opinion, or belief about a person or group. Stereotypes are qualities assigned to an individual or group of people related to their nationality, ethnicity, sexuality, socioeconomic status, and gender, among others. Most often they are negative generalizations. A healthcare provider who fails to recognize individuality within a group is stereotyping.(100) Transcultural: A descriptive term implies that concepts transcend cultural boundaries or are universal to all cultures, such as caring, health, and birthing. In contrast crosscultural refers to a comparative perspective on cultures to generate knowledge of differences and similarities.(85) (86) (87) 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 27 of 35 Translation versus Interpretation: The key difference between translation and interpretation lies within the choice of communication channel. Translation deals with written communication, while interpretation involves the spoken word.(92) (101) See also Cultural and Linguistic Competence. Verbal communication: “The form of communication that includes the dominant language and dialects, contextual use of the language, and paralanguage variations, such as voice volume and tone, intonations, reflections, and willingness to share thoughts and feelings.”(97) Note: *Provided by the Task Force on Cultural Competencies 12-30-10 Expert Panel on Global Nursing & Health Page 28 of 35 References 1. Rawls, John. (1971). A Theory of Justice. 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