Human Anatomy & Physiology II Laboratory Syllabus

BIOL 2120L Human Anatomy & Physiology II Laboratory Syllabus

ALL LABS WILL BEGIN THE FIRST WEEK OF THE SEMESTER.
***Students must attend during the first week of the semester. IF YOU DO NOT ATTEND THE FIRST WEEK, YOU WILL BE CONSIDERED A “NO SHOW” AND DROPPED FROM THE LAB AND CONSEQUENTLY WITHDRAWN FROM THE CO-REQUISITE LECTURE.
Lab Credits 1 – Credit
Day/Time/Meet/Locations Monday / 4:00pm – 6:45pm – Rm. AB 130  Alpharetta Lab Building Please consult your lab schedule for the specific dates & locations
Office Hours Before and after lab / by appointment only
Instructor / phone Dr. John Krolak / 404-498-2232  Cell: 678-488-4596   leave a text message with name and reference to this class
Email / Communications jkrolak@gsu.edu
Access to lab materials ICollege / D2L

CoRequisite: Biology 2120 Lecture. You must be registered for both lab and lecture at the same time. Withdrawal from either lecture or lab will result in automatic withdrawal from both. It is strongly suggested that you take lecture and lab on the same campus and on the same schedule (half term or full term). Lab topics on this campus follow as close as possible the order of lecture topics on this campus. IF you take lecture on a different campus, topics may be covered in a different order.

REQUIRED TEXT

Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual (Fetal Pig Edition) 13th Ed. With Physio EX and Mastering Biology – Elaine N. Marieb & Lori Smith. (ISBN:13:978-0-321-97135-7)

REQUIRED MATERIALS (materials NOT or MAY NOT be provided by the college)

Vinyl, Nitrile, or Latex Gloves (required for dissection)                                                         Sharpie Marker                                                                                                                    Colored Pencils                                                                                                                              Folder or notebook for Laboratory Drawings                                                                Drawing paper for histology drawings (Slide drawing paper can be downloaded and printed from laboratory website)

CATALOG DESCRIPTION

This is a laboratory covering microscopic survey of animal cells and tissues, integumentary, skeletal, muscular (animal dissection and muscle identification using human models), and nervous systems with emphasis on the brain and sense organs.

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COURSE OBJECTIVES

As a consequence of completing this course, the student will be able to:

  1. Identify and determine spatial relationships of anatomical structures being studied in BIOL 1611 through the use of practical examples provided by animal dissection, models and microscope slides, and explain the function of certain aspects of the muscular and nervous systems. Video, laser disks and computer demonstrations may be used to reinforce this.
  2. Perform physiological experiments, gather and interpret data, and draw conclusions based on those data.
  3. Write a coherent description of the methods, results and conclusions of the experiment and their findings.
  4. Demonstrate laboratory skills and techniques to include – reading and following directions, performing experiments and recording data.

GRADE DETERMINATION

The final letter grade will be determined in the following manner:

Element Percent
MIDTERM EXAM 30%
FINAL EXAM 30%
Histology Drawings 10%
Lab Report 15%
Paper Quiz 5%
Attendance & Participation 10%

Grading Scale

Grade Percentage (%)
A 90-100
B 80-89
C 70-79
D 60-69
F below 60
   

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ATTENDANCE

1.  Students who miss lab exercises perform very poorly in this course. The primary objective of any lab course is to provide the student with a hands-on experience that will support and illustrate the concepts covered in the lecture portion of the course. Lab is about seeing and doing. Therefore, consistent and timely attendance to lab is a must for success in this course!

 2.  Attendance is required for all lab sessions. There will be no make-up lab exercises. “Attendance” means that you must be in class for the entire scheduled lab period until dismissed by the instructor. A missed lab will result in a grade of zero for that experiment. Any grades collected during the missed class, such as quizzes, cannot be made up and will be recorded as a zero (0). If a student misses a laboratory exercise, the exercise cannot be used for a laboratory report. Students are responsible for any information covered in their absence. Participation also means that students will clean-up their lab areas after completing the lab exercise.

3.  Labs will begin at the scheduled time. Important safety and introductory information is given during the beginning of the lab class. Late arrival to lab will affect your understanding of the entire lab and may pose a safety hazard to you and other students. If a quiz is given at the beginning of the lab, students arriving late for any reason will NOT be allowed to take the quiz. Attendance & Participation will count 10% of your grade. Proper attire will also be a portion of this grade.

WITHDRAWAL POLICY                                                                                                          IT IS THE STUDENT’S RESPONSIBILITY TO WITHDRAW FROM LAB

Your instructor will NOT withdraw you for lack of attendance or other reasons. Withdrawals without penalty will not be permitted after the midpoint of the semester. Withdrawal from either lecture or lab will result in automatic withdrawal from the co-requisite class. The College will assign a grade of “W”. Students who withdraw after the mid-semester will receive a WF. A grade of “I” will not be assigned for a laboratory course.

STUDENT ILLNESS

In compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations, students should NOT attend class or any public gatherings while ill with influenza. Students with flu symptoms should not come to campus and should remain at home during recovery. The illness and self-isolation period will usually be about a week. It is very important that individuals avoid spreading the flu to others. Students will be given a reasonable opportunity to make-up missed work. Students with the flu do not need to provide a physician’s certification of illness. However, ill students should inform their instructor by submitting the clinic’s note of treatment.

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EXAMS

Two laboratory practical exams will be given and could consist of short answer, fill-in the blank, multiple choice and/or matching questions. The Midterm Exam will be inclusive of all material covered from Week 1 through the Mid-point of the semester while the Final Exam will include material from the Midterm through the remainder of the course. Spelling is an important factor in answering questions on practical exams. Therefore, points may be deducted as a result of spelling errors. If a student arrives later to an exam, he/she may only complete the portion of the exam for which time remains. If a student arrives for an exam (later than 25 minutes) the instructor may choose to not allow the student to take the exam even though there is time remaining.                                                                                                                                     The lab exam will be in a ‘station’ format whereby you will move from one station to another station and you will be allottted specific amount of time to answer the question(s) at that particular station (typically 2 minutes). During this period of time, students will not be allowed to walk around the room freely, talk, have any materials in their possession or revisit a station at the end of the exam. Once time has been called for the exam, the student must turn in his/her answer sheet.

MAKE-UP EXAMS (NOTE: NOT APPLICABLE TO THIS SEMESTER)

If given, the format for make-ups for Midterm and Final exams will be determined by the laboratory instructor. Make-up exams could consist of a comprehensive essay. And given during the week of Final exams for the semester (but not beyond the last day of finals) and are only administered to students with a written verifiable excused absence approved by the lab instructor (see Policies for Make-up exams) and the INSTRUCTOR WAS NOTIFIED OF THE MISSED EXAM PRIOR TO THE TIME AND DATE OF THE EXAM ANY LABORATORY MAKE-UP EXAM WILL BE GIVEN AT THE CONVENIENCE OF THE LAB INSTRUCTOR. Your constructive assessment of this course plays an indispensable role in shaping education at Georgia State. Upon completing the course, please take the time to fill out the online course evaluation.

LAB QUIZZES

If required by the lab instructor, lab quizzes will be given during the semester. These quizzes can be randomly given during the laboratory period and be unannounced. They will be given either at the beginning or the end of the lab period. If a student is not present for a lab quiz there will be NO MAKEUP QUIZZES WILL BE GIVEN​. The quizzes may include but are not limited to questions from the preceding lab exercise and/or questions about the assigned laboratory exercise for that day. The lab instructor may elect to give lab quizzes using D2L.

HISTOLOGY DRAWINGS

Biology lab students will make drawings of slides studied throughout the semester. Guidelines for the slide drawings are accessible on the Biology Laboratory Web site. The instructions must be followed in order to receive full credit​. All drawings must be on either solid white paper or Slide Drawing Paper (see 1611L web page or instructor D2L page to download drawing paper).

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Do not​ use lined paper. Drawing paper will NOT be provided by the College​. You should bring drawing paper with you to each lab session. Drawings will be due no later​ than the beginning​ of the lab period on the due date. Drawings submitted past the 24 hour time limit will NOT​ be accepted. The lab instructor may require drawings to be checked at any time including each lab session. Lab drawings must be firmed secured in a notebook/folder upon submission.

Instructions for Lab Drawings (if required):                                                                              1. Drawings MUST​ be original and done from actual microscope slides observed in the lab.

2. Copies of illustrations from the lab manual, textbook, Internet or other outside sources are NOT acceptable and will receive a zero for that drawing.

3. Use only the Slide Drawing Paper found on the 1611L web page or instructor D2L page or solid white paper as instructed by the lab instructor. Do NOT use lined paper for drawings.

4. Drawing paper will not be provided by the college and cannot be printed on the lab printer​.                                                             

5. Drawings must be done in pencil and, if preferred by the lab instructor, colored.

6. All coloring of drawings must be done OUTSIDE OF THE LAB CLASS.

7. Refer to the slide drawing list for structures which must be located and labeled​.

8. Leader lines must be used to indicate structures.

9. Labeled structures leader lines should not cross.

10. Keep your drawings in a notebook or folder with your name on it.

11. Drawings must be organized in the slide drawing list.

12. Only 2 slide drawings per page​. It will be up to the lab instructor if both front and back of the paper will be used.

13. Drawing information must include: the SYSTEM​ (integumentary, nervous, etc…) from which the tissue comes, GENERAL TYPE OF TISSUE​ (Epithelial, Connective, etc…), SPECIFIC NAME OF TISSUE (Simple Squamous, Cuboidal, etc…), NAME ON SLIDE​ (may not be the same as the name of the tissue), ONE LOCATION​ in the body in which the tissue can be found, ​and ​TOTAL MAGNIFICATION (ocular X objective lens) used for viewing.  Example below:

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_rYYcdMsVqUE/TT_nL4MXLUI/AAAAAAAAAAs/8hr_6wzQmSg/s1600/Cell_parts.png

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HISTOLOGY DRAWINGS (cont.)

All histology drawings will be turned-in at the end of the semester and will not be returned.

LABORATORY REPORT

All laboratory students are required to do a writing assignment in the form of a lab report (minimum 5 pages). Library resources including periodicals, books, newspapers, and journals to compliment your data may be used. A minimum of 2 references​ is required. The laboratory manual and textbook cannot be used as a reference​. All references must be reliable and valid​. Wikipedia ​CANNOT​ be used as a reference​. Using Wikipedia as a resource may result in a 0 (zero) for the lab report. Guidelines for writing a research paper can be found on the Biology Laboratory web site. These guidelines must be followed in order to receive full credit​. Papers submitted past the 24 hour time limit may NOT​ be accepted. If it is accepted, student may only receive partial credit.  PLAGIARIZED PAPERS WILL AUTOMATICALLY RECEIVE A ZERO​. Your lab instructor may use Turn-It-In ​for submitted papers. If so, the lab instructor will provide instructions on submitting papers to Turn-It-In.  Reports will be securely bounded and turned-in at the last lab session of the semester and will not be returned to students.                                                                       

WORK STATION

Students are responsible for maintenance of their assigned lab station. This includes returning all equipment to the proper storage area, cleaning/returning all borrowed equipment and glassware, and cleaning the lab table top of all chemicals, paper scraps, etc. prior to leaving lab. Glassware should be cleaned and returned to the set up area. All caps to solution bottles must be properly placed on the bottle. Used plastic pipets must be disposed of according to the instructions provided by your lab instructor. Prepared slides must NEVER​ be thrown away or placed with used wet mount slides. Prepared slides must be returned to their proper tray. Notify the instructor of any damaged slides, prepared or wet mounts. Used wet mount slides should be discarded in the Used Slides​ disposal box. Please treat the equipment with respect. Clean up your area.​ Failure to do so will result in a 10 pt. A&P deduction. Students may be penalized for leaving a mess. CLEAN UP is 10 minutes before lab is scheduled to end regardless of student progress on a lab exercise. If you leave lab early, clean-up your mess don’t dump it on your lab team.

DESTRUCTION OF MODELS                                                                                                  All Biology labs use models to emphasize or aid in learning course concepts. These models are expensive and will be used in multiple lab classes. Respect for the lab equipment is a part of learning and therefore should not be abused. Students observed abusing/improperly handling the models will be dismissed from lab and will receive a zero for that lab class.                         

Model abuse includes but is not limited to:

1. Screws being unscrewed, bent, or removed.

2. Rods to removable parts being bent or pulled out

3. Parts of models taken from the lab or misplaced

4. Glued parts being pulled apart

5. Writing on models/Removing numbers or names         6

LABORATORY SAFETY

The Biology Laboratory Safety Policies can be found on the Biology Laboratory website. Your instructor will thoroughly go over these policies on the first day of lab. Laboratory students will follow laboratory safety policies at all times while in the lab. A safety contract must be signed on the first day of lab. Students will not be allowed back into the lab without first signing the safety contract.

Students will NOT be allowed into the lab room wearing open toed shoes such as sandals and flip flops. Closed toe shoes are required. Students will not wear shorts or raiments that don’t cover their legs. Students will NOT be allowed in the lab room with any open containers of food or drink. Any food or drink must remain concealed in a personal bag or cabinet for the duration of the laboratory period. You may be dismissed immediately from the lab if seen eating or drinking and will receive a zero for the lab exercise and any lab assignments for that day. Cell phone use is not allowed unless instructor says otherwise.

SAFETY AND HAZARDOUS WASTE PROTOCOL

ALL LABORATORY STUDENTS WILLBE REQUIRED​ TO COMPLY WITH LABORATORY SAFETY RULES. ANY STUDENT WHO DOES NOT COMPLY WITH THESE (OR ANY OTHER) SAFETY AND HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL RULES WILL BE SUBJECT TO THE FOLLOWING:

1. FIRST VIOLATION​ – WARNING / Attendance & Participation grade impacted

2. SECOND VIOLATION​ – Removal from Lab Class and Receive a Zero for that Lab Class Period.

3. THIRD VIOLATION​ – Withdrawal from Lab Class with Subsequent Withdrawal from Lecture Class.

EATING AND DRINKING IS PROHIBITED IN ANY SCIENCE LABORATORY. ABSOLUTELY NO OPEN CONTAINERS OF FOOD AND/OR DRINK WILL BE ALLOWED IN THE LAB. THE COLLEGE WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY ILLNESS DUE TO VIOLATION OF LABORATORY EATING AND DRINKING SAFETY PROTOCOL.

D2L

Your instructor will use D2L at a minimum to post an instructor syllabus addendum, lab schedule and any handouts that cannot be posted on the Alpharetta Science web site due to copyright issues. Your instructor may also elect to use D2L to administer class assignments and communicate with students via email or announcements.

TURN-IT-IN

Your instructor may elect to use Turn-It-In for written assignments. The lab instructor will inform you as to whether or not Turn-It-In will be used and if so, provide instructions on how to submit the written assignments.                          7

OPEN LAB     (NOTE: NOT APPLICABLE TO THIS SEMESTER)

Open labs are for independent study and reviewing materials and not for making up lab exercises. There are no Open labs during regular lab class periods. Open labs will be available only if there is time available AND the open lab is supervised by either a lab instructor or lab staff. The laboratory staff will not provide tutoring or other lab exercise information during Open lab. Students will not be allowed in the lab without supervision. Open lab times (if available) will be posted in the laboratory room. While in open lab, all safety and clean up rules will be enforced. Students who violate safety rules while in the open lab may be dismissed and if deemed necessary, refused open lab privileges. All materials used during the Open lab must be properly returned from which they were retrieved.

COMPUTER USAGE

The computers used in the lab are ONLY​ for lab exercises that require computers. These computers should not be used to check email, surf the Internet, print lecture or lab notes or research/term/lab papers. When students collect data from a lab exercise, the data can be printed to a printer located in the lab. During these exercises, students must make sure that their data are labeled with the individual or group name.

CELL PHONE/ELECTRONIC USE

Students are PROHIBITED​ from talking on cell phones and other electronic communication devices in classrooms, laboratories, learning and tutoring centers, testing centers, and other areas where posted. All electrical devices must be turned on silent or vibrate upon entering the laboratory​. Should your electronic device go off during lab or an exam and disrupts lab, you may be dismissed from lab for that session and receive a zero for any activities.

Any​ use of a cell phone during an exam will constitute cheating and a grade of 0 (zero) will be given for the exam or the lab instructor may suggest that the student also be withdrawn from the lab class. It will be at the discretion of the lab instructor as to the severity of punishment.

***During lab exams, the lab instructor will require students to keep their cell phone​s in their backpacks. Any student who refuses to keep their cell phone in their backpack during an exam may be in violation of the Student Code of Conduct and subject to charges of academic dishonesty, class disruption, or other charges at the discretion of the laboratory instructor.

ACADEMIC HONESTY POLICY

Cheating includes any attempt to defraud, deceive, or mislead the instructor in arriving at an honest grade assessment. Plagiarism is a form cheating that involves presenting the ideas or work of another as your own. Cheating includes, but is not limited to:

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  1. On a test or quiz: looking at or copying from another students’ work, allowing another student to copy your work, exchanging written or oral communication, using notes, or opening a text book.
  2. On out-of -class assignments (including lab reports): copying from another student or printed source without citation, having another person do your work, or allowing another student to use your work as his/her own.
  3. Providing false documentation in order to be allowed to make up a missed test or assignment or to document an excused absence.
  4. Using a cell phone any time during a quiz or exam.

A first offense violation of the cheating policy will result in a grade of zero for the assignment in question and the instructor will complete a Violation of the GPC Academic Honesty Policy form. A second offense will result in assignment of an F grade for the course and a formal charge of academic dishonesty will be lodged with the Campus Dean for Student Services. Polices have been established by Georgia Perimeter College to insure due process in charges of cheating or plagiarism. A copy of these procedures can be found in the Student Handbook.

STUDENT CODE OF CONDUCT​ Students are expected to conduct themselves in a collegial manner. A student who disrupts class activities will be asked to leave the lab room and/or will receive a zero for any activities performed during that participation session. A student who continues to be disruptive will be reported to Dr. Solomon Fessaha, the department chairperson and/or the Dean of Student Affairs for possible disciplinary action. A student may be asked to leave the classroom if the disruption of such a nature that it threatens the teaching processes, and/or the safety of the instructor or other students. The student Code of Conduct can be found in the Student Handbook.

DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR

Disruptive behavior is defined as any behavior that interferes with teaching, administration, college activities, and the collegiate learning process. Determination of a behavior as disruptive is at the discretion of the faculty or staff and can be dependent upon many factors. Any student exhibiting such behavior will be dismissed for that class session and graded accordingly. Disruptive behavior includes but is not limited to:

● Entering class late or leaving early without notifying the instructor

● Eating/drinking in class without permission

● Sleeping in class

● Persistent talking/speaking without permission

● Inappropriate use of electronic devices

● Disputing the authority of faculty or staff

● Arguing with faculty, staff or other students

● Electronic communications which are abusive, harassing, or excessive

● Threats of any kind and/or harassment and abusive speech

● Physical or verbal disruptions or assault             9

INFORMATION ON PERFORMANCE ALERT FOR STUDENT SUCCESS (PASS) Academic success is a top priority at GSU-GPC. Activities have been designed to alert both instructor and student in timely manner. If sufficient progress on certain concepts is not being made . A Performance Alert for Student Success (PASS) will be sent to academically struggling students throughout the semester to inform students of their status in the course and to provide additional resources for assistance. The notification 10 enables students to address any academic weakness that could affect their successful completion of the course. If a student receives a PASS , the student should meet with the instructor to discuss their performance in the course and to design an improvement plan. PASS messages will be sent via emailed and by SMS text messaging.

TOBACCO AND SMOKE-FREE CAMPUS POLICY:

Tobacco and Smoke-Free Campus Policy: Effective October 1, 2014, GSU prohibits the use of tobacco products on any property owned, leased, or controlled by GSU. All faculty, staff, students, visitors, vendors, contractors, and all others are prohibited from using any tobacco products while on GSU property. “Tobacco Products” is defined as cigarettes, pipes, cigars, all forms of smokeless tobacco, clove cigarettes and other smoking devices that use tobacco such as hookahs or simulate the use of tobacco such as electronic cigarettes. Violations of the smoking policy will be handled under the GSU Student Code of Conduct.

AFFIRMATIVE ACTION STATEMENT

Georgia State University – Georgia Perimeter College adheres to affirmative action policies designed to promote diversity and equal opportunity for all faculty, staff, and students.

AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT STATEMENT

Students who wish to request accommodation for a disability may do so by registering with the Office of Disability Services. Students may only be accommodated upon issuance by the Office of Disability Services of a signed Accommodation Plan and are responsible for providing a copy of that plan to instructors of all classes in which accommodations are sought.

The course syllabus provides a general plan for the course; deviations may be necessary

Your constructive assessment of this course plays an indispensable role in shaping education at Georgia State. Upon completing the course, please take the time to fill out the online course evaluation

EQUAL OPPORTUNITY STATEMENT

No person shall, on the grounds of race, color, sex, religion, creed, national origin, age, sexual orientation, or disability be excluded from employment or participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted at Georgia State University.

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DISCLAIMER: ​ This syllabus does not constitute a contract. To maintain the academic integrity of the course, this instructor reserves the right to change any portion this syllabus and any of its contents at any time during the semester by notifying students verbally or by written addendum.

                                                        WEDNESDAYS (Section 006)

Week Dates Lab Exercises (included in activities)
1 1/16 Introduction / Lab Safety / Administrative Issues Review of Microscopy Ex: 27 – Endocrine System (#1&2)  
2 1/23 Ex: 29 – Blood Elements (#2, 3 – Prepared Blood Slide and Prepared Sickle Cell Slide) Blood Typing Handout (Print and Bring to Lab)
3 1/30 Ex: 30 – Anatomy of the Heart (#1, 2, 3) [Sheep Heart] *Gloves Required
4 2/6 Ex: 31 – Conduction System of the Heart & Electrocardiography                EKG Handout (Print & Bring to Lab)
5 2/13 Ex: 32 – Anatomy of Blood Vessels (#1-4)                 Dissection – Ex: 4 Blood Vessels of the Pig (#3,4,5) *Gloves Required
6 2/20 Ex: 33 – Human Cardiovascular Physiology (# 1,2,4,5, & 7)                Review for Midterm
  2/27 MIDTERM EXAM
7 3/6 Ex: 36 – Anatomy of the Respiratory System (#1 & 3)                Dissection Ex: 6 Respiratory Sys. Of Pig (Act. 1) *Gloves Required Ex: 37 – Respiratory Sys. Physiology (#1,3) LabPro – Respiration Handout (Print and Bring to Lab)
  3/6 LAST DAY TO WITHDRAW WITH ‘W’
8 3/13 Ex: 38 – Anatomy of the Digestive System (Act. 1-8)                Dissection Ex: 7 – Digestive System of the Pig (#1) *Gloves Required
  3/12 SPRING BREAK  (March 18-22)
9 3/27 Ex: 39 – Digestive Process: Chemical & Physical (#1)
10 4/3 Ex: 40 – Anatomy of the Urinary System (#1-3)                Pig Dissection Ex: 8 – Urinary Sys. of Pig (#1) *Gloves Required Ex: 41 – Urinalysis (#1) Urinalysis Handout (Print & Bring to Lab)        
11 4/10 Ex: 42 – Anatomy of Pig Reproductive System (#1,2,5)                Dissection Ex: 9 -Reproductive System of Pig (#1,2) *Gloves Required
12 4/17 Ex: 43 – Physiology of Reproduction: Gametogenesis and the Female Cycles (#1,2,4,6) Ex: 45 –  Principles of Heredity (Act. 1-6) Review for Final Exam
  4/24 FINAL EXAM
     
     
     
     
     

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Laboratory Report Sections

– Introduction

            – – write two paragraphs in this section to provide an adequate background of the

                 topic of your lab report.

– Methods and Materials

            – – explain the methods that you used in your lab exercise and the materials that

                 were necessary for you to carry out the lab.

– Results

          – – explain the results that you obtained in the lab exercise

          – – provide graphs, tables, charts, drawings or other visual aids to explain the data

                 that were obtained. Use this section to explain the data that were obtained in this

                 lab exercise.

– Conclusions

          – – From your findings (results) explain what you found by doing this lab. Draw

                 conclusions as to what happened during this lab whether they agree with others

                 in the lab or not. Explain the results based on what you and your group obtained.

– References

            – – cite authors by last name, then the first initial of their first name and first

     initial of their middle name, if they have one.

            – – follow the authors names, include a comma.  This is followed with the date of the

                 publication in parentheses. The date is followed by the title of the article.

            – – the title of the article is followed by the title of the journal name

            – – the title of the journal name is followed by the volume number of the journal

                 name (there may be two numbers; example, 125(5)) followed by a colon

            – – following the colon are the page numbers inclusive to the pages found in the

                article

FORMATTING EXAMPLE FOR REFERENCES:

Krolak JM, Ownby CL, Sauer JR. (1982) Alveolar structure of the salivary glands of the Lonestar tick Amblyomma americanum (L.): unfed females.  J. Parasitology 68(1): 61-82.

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