[3] The third person in the Holy Trinity – The Son of God

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 The Fourth Lateran Council

After Alexander III’s long reign of seventeen years, the cardinals appointed a thirty seven years old son of the Count of Segni called Lothar on eighth of January, 1198 (Turner 2000, 24). Lothar got the name Innocent III[4]. In the medieval church, much of importance is not perceived to have happened but the convening of the fourth Lateran council by pope Innocent III changed the course of history and the Latin Church (Evans 2010, 35). This great initiative by Pope Innocent III was first summoned on the nineteenth of April, 1213 to have a meeting on November 1215.

The Dark Ages[5] is referred to as the time when the council first met. This was around AD 476 when there was intellectual stagnation because the Roman Empire had been seized. It was the role of the Holy Roman Empire to intervene and intensify intellectual activities such as building of great universities, which later took control over the intellectual sphere (Rosamund mckitterick 2001, 29). These schools, which were linked to the medieval cathedrals, offered training to students in theology, biblical history and interpretation. This period also entailed intense theological debates that were piloted in relation to the Lord’s Supper or the nature of Eucharist. The making up of systems of theology referred to as the Cathedrals of the mind by Anselm of Canterbury and Peter Lombard, depicted theology as sterile arrangement of themes with little significance to one’s everyday problems. This was contrary to the existing concept of theology as the solicitation of biblical truths to one’s individual life. The main theme that most of the heretical groups, which came up with notions that taught on the dualistic interpretation of the universe and purity of the faith, had in mind that physical possessions were inherently evil whereas the spirit was pure (Vidmar 2005, 41). This left the Holy Land to remain in the hands of those who rejected the Christian faith.


[1] The Catholic Church was the first Christian religious dominion to be established in the Medieval Ages.

[2] The leaders were all under the papal supervision and leadership.

[3] The third person in the Holy Trinity – The Son of God

[4] Pope innocent was anointed a cardinal by his uncle before being elected a Pope.

[5] This period entailed economic and cultural deterioration in the first phase of the Medieval ages that happened in Europe.

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