_ 61. Researchers should try to avoid double-barreled questions, or questions that:
a. ask about multiple issues
b. use emotional language that may bias the respondent
c. are vague or ambiguous
d. have a hidden agenda
e. allow for a wide variety of responses
____ 62. Researchers are often worried that interviewees have not been completely honest or forthcoming, especially when asked about sensitive subjects. How did Arlie Hochschild attempt to deal with this problem?
a. She asked each question in different ways to try to trap respondents in contradictions.
b. She interviewed each spouse separately to see if their stories matched.
c. She observed some respondents as they went about their daily routines to see if their actions matched their answers.
d. She confronted respondents when they give answers that seemed dubious.
e. When respondents seemed to be giving questionable answers, she used leading questions.
____ 63. Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of using interviews to conduct social research?
a. Interviewees are allowed to speak in their own words.
b. Interviewees are not always truthful.
c. Interviewees can be difficult to talk to.
d. Interviews are time consuming.
e. It can be difficult to generalize from interviews because the sample size is usually small.
____ 64. Why do social scientists who use interviews rarely speak with large numbers of people for a project?
a. It is hard to find people willing to be interviewed.
b. The transcription process takes a long time.
c. There are usually very few people who are interesting enough to be interviewed.
d. Face-to-face interviewing is a very time consuming process.
e. The data is so rich that only a few interviews are needed.
____ 65. Arlie Hochschild was concerned that her sample of interviewees was too small to guarantee representativeness. How did Hochschild attempt to overcome this problem?
a. by very carefully selecting only totally representative interviewees
b. by deciding that she didn’t need to generalize to any larger population
c. by asking only open-ended questions
d. by doing follow-up interviews with each interviewee
e. by comparing demographic information about her interviewees with information about her target population
____ 66. While it is always important to ask clear and unambiguous questions regardless of the method that you use, it is especially important to avoid confusion when conducting surveys. Why?
a. Survey research methods commonly use statistics.
b. When using survey research methods, the researcher is usually not present to clarify any misunderstandings.
c. Confusing and ambiguous questions create an ethical dilemma.
d. Survey researchers talk to many people.
e. Survey research tends to look at large-scale social patterns.
____ 67. When writing questions for a survey, researchers must avoid all of the following EXCEPT:
a. leading questions
b. double-barreled questions
c. negative questions
e. open-ended questions
____ 68. One of the key methods used to do political polling is random-digit dialing, in which every phone number in an area code has an equal chance of being selected to take part in a survey. However researchers have noticed that young people are more likely to only use a cell phone, and people with cell phones are less likely to answer a call from an unknown number. As a result, polling organizations often count responses from young people as being worth “more” than those from older people. What is this technique called?
c. probability sampling
d. Likert scales
e. leading questions
____ 69. In 1936 The Literary Digest conducted a survey to predict the winner of the presidential election. It sent ten million surveys to a variety of households identified through phone books, automobile registries, and magazine subscriptions. Two million people returned the surveys and showed a very strong preference for Alf Landon over Franklin Roosevelt. What was the response rate?
a. 20 percent
b. 10 million
c. 50 percent
d. 2 percent
e. 100 percent
____ 70. Which of the following are disadvantages of using existing sources of data for research?
a. Researchers often seek answers to questions that the data doesn’t directly address.
b. Researchers have to spend a great deal of time and money to get the data.
c. Researchers do not always understand how the data was interpreted or what it meant in its original context.
d. both A and B
e. both A and C
____ 71. Why are social networking sites like Facebook and MySpace so exciting to sociologists who study social networks?
a. For the first time, social networking sites offer sociologists a data set rich enough to test ideas that until now have only been theorized.
b. For the first time, sociologists have realized just how much the internet has changed social networks.
c. For the first time, sociologists don’t have to spend the time and money to go talk to people and can do all their work from a computer.
d. For the first time, sociologists can find out what young people’s social networks look like.
e. For the first time, sociologists can track the spread of urban legends.
____ 72. What is the primary goal of comparative and historical research methods?
a. to enhance the validity of experiments
b. to understand relationships between parts of society in different times and different places
c. to uncover issues that been neglected by mainstream social research
d. to select participants who are very similar so that the independent variable can be isolated
e. to produce data that can be used to encourage social change
____ 73. What does it mean for a sociologist to control for a variable?
a. Research subjects are divided into two groups.
b. Change over time is measured in a dependent variable.
c. One group is allowed to understand the nature of the experiment while the other group is kept in the dark.
d. Precise tools are developed with which to measure a variable.
e. All factors except for the independent variable are taken into account.
____ 74. A recent sociological experiment sought to determine the exact role that social support plays in the health of expectant mothers. To conduct the experiment, the researchers asked midwives to flip a coin each time they received a new client, and if it came up heads to try as hard as possible to put the client in contact with others who could provide social support. If the coin came up tails, the midwives would not discourage the woman from receiving social support, but would not facilitate it. What is the dependent variable in this experiment?
a. coin flips
c. social support
e. expectant mothers
____ 75. When Elton Mayo did his now-classic experiment on worker productivity, he found that he could increase productivity by changing variables in a work environment, but also that changing variables back increased productivity. What did he conclude was the true cause of the increase in productivity?
a. a decrease in sick days
b. his own bias
c. the effect of being studied
d. the effect of change in the workplace, as it broke workers’ routines and made them more alert
e. increased lighting and longer breaks