Development from Conception to Age 16 Years Essay.
One being the ability to use numerous limbs for example throwing a ball, the other being everyday movements e. g. walking as well as running. Fine motor corresponds; the term describes minor movements that engage smaller muscles to work. This is yet again broken down into two key sections; Fine manipulative skills- the minor movements that are needed when doing puzzles, drawing, painting or writing. Along with fine motor skills- the combination of hand plus wrist actions for e. g. pening a door The combination of hand-eye coordination, Foot-eye coordination and balance are additionally found in both gross and fine motor to help the child develop.
Which can be linked to brain development . This is because “Maturation of the nervous system is linked to brain growth and development. In term of physical development, this growth effects the development of gross and fine motor skills”. (CASHELevel3ChildCareAndEducation/PennyTassoni/pg40)As a child grows with age coordination and balance should become natural given that the brain develops and becomes more intricate.
Birth to three years period is a very significant time in the child’s life, during this time they will progress as well as absorb lasting skills. They will learn to develop in many different areas along with numerous milestones they should achieve according to their age. These milestones are set into the gross and fine motor category, examples of the major steps a child from birth to three years should achieve are; •lifting up head and chest •Sitting up unsupported •Crawling •self feeding •Walk without any help •Draw simple dots and shapes •Complete a simple puzzle •kick a ball
Physical development is an on going progress, between the ages of three to seven years movements and activates will become a lot more difficult, compared to the birth to 3 years category. This is because the brain is widening its skills and knowledge. Examples of milestones that are aimed to child from three to seven years are; •can ride a tricycle •use scissors to cut easy shapes •use one foot to hop •knows how to right their name •can use a skipping rope •precisely cut out shapes •has good balance for skipping, hopping or jumping Another significant development that I have chosen is language development. The acquisition of language though the gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds perceived and understood by the individual”( http://www. earlytolearn. com/glossary-of-terms/). This means that language development is not only about speech itself but referrers to the multiple ways to interact along with communicate. For example listening abilities, the knowledge of reading along with writing, signs and symbols for the hard of hearing, or even the babbling of babies. These are all ways in which children express their emotions, putting across their view as to what they are thinking.
Communication is set in many stages it may take a child a generous period of time to use words in which are politically correct. However by communicating with sounds, actions and broken vocabulary mothers or other people close to the child will soon understand what the child is intending. It is also the adults responsibility to correct their children along with educate them in the correct grammar and meanings of words. Language development is set according to age the stages indicate how well a child should communicate depending how old they may be.
From the ages of birth to 3 years and 3 to 7 years the expectations of language development becomes more complex. From birth to 3 years a baby will develop continuously, it will start at the pre-linguistic stage, some examples are; •Expresses itself by crying •Start to make cooling noises •Uses the combination of constant and vowels to make sounds • starts making babbling noises •Has some meaning to what they are saying •Say their first word •Often repeats the same word Although children from 3 to 7 years do not develop as far spread a children from birth to 3 years.
Their development becomes increasing complex: •Increase in words •Sentences become longer and clear •Still make various grammar mistakes •Can socialize with other children their age •Often ask the same question multiple times •Fluent in the English language but may make a few mistakes along the way For both physical and language development I have incorporated the norm age of stage according to megett. However in some scenarios a child may not exceed in the milestones set according to their age. Evidence behind this may be factors which effect their progression.
Examples of factors which may both types of devlopoment are; the child’s genetics or the environment in which they are in. Genetic influence can strongly affect the way in which a child may develop physically. Hereditary genes are passed from our parents, which can have multiple influences on our lives. Some can give us physical traits as to what we look like or the height in which we may grow to. Others can cause serious illnesses. “Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of many debilitating hereditary diseases that leads to early death (Gelbart et al. , 2002) (Figure 1)” (http://www. learn. ppdictionary. com/physical_development. tm) DMD is a genetic illness which affects a child’s physical achievements. Children with DMD lack in achieving the norms of development, usually resulting in them being wheelchair bound by the late teenage years. Genetic factors may also affect language development. For example a common heritable disorder is dyslexia. Studys show ‘According to a yale study 1 out of 5people suffer from dyslexia’(http://dyslexia. learninginfo. org/dyslexia-facts. htm)Dyslexia restricts the ability to process both written and spoken language, symptoms often include having difficulty with spellings, handwriting as well as reading.
Although genetics do play a large part in development, Factors of the environment can also influence the way in which a child grows. For example if a child is living under poor conditions unable to get access to a sustainable amount of food or water it can lead to malnutrition. On the other hand if a child is given too much food along with limited access to exercise they may become obese. Both health conditions can affect how a child physically develops, which can often put them behind the norm stage of development.
Language development may also be affected by the environment “Evans’ research reveals significant reading delays for children living near airports and exposed to airport noise. ”( http://www. human. cornell. edu/hd/outreach-extension/upload/evans. pdf). This evidence shows that the constant impact of loud noises can affect a child’s listening abilities along with reading skills. This may be because the child is drowning out the continual loud noise finding it hard to retain certain information, which can put the child behind in their development.
One important aspect to remember is each and every child develops at their own pace. For instance one sibling may have walked earlier then another. No one child should become compared to another. If a child is not achieving the specific milestone for their age ,on most occasions the child is categorically fine and should catch up in no time. The affecting factors link to the theoretical debate on nature vs nurture. This debate focuses on the conflicting options within development. One theoretical perspective is that our development is natural because it is determined from the heredity genes transferred from our parents.
Another option is that we develop along with learn according to the environment we subsist in, learning from past experiences from how we have been brought up and nurtured. Jean piaget was a famous Swiss theorist who studied psychology along with human intellect. Piaget had an interest in child physiology, resulting in the nurture theory. His intentions were to see the world through the eyes of children to fully understand their thoughts, from this he invented the intelligence test. Piaget observed children asking them undemanding problem questions to then analyses their response plus determine the logic behind the answer.
Focusing more in-depth towards the wrong questions. The term ‘schema’ was used to conclude a childs answer. This put forth a theory, Piaget came to think that as children retained new information the schema’s would change, becoming more complex. His research found that children’s answers differed from adults. “he proposed that children’s limited life experiences meant that they had not amassed enough information about the world to come to the same conclusion as adults”(spotlight, Julie smart, practical pre school august 2012,page21) This shows that piaget believed nurture benefited the way in which children develop.
Concluding that children should explore different situations as well as stages within themselves however have a guide to encourage them along the way. This however also links into physical along with communication development. Not only did piaget attempt to comprehend the thought process of children, but also has a theory on the stages in which a children should develop according to age. Piaget mainly focused on cognitive development but also links this between physical and language communication development.
His theory consists of four stages; Sensori-motor, Pre-operational,Concrete operations, Formal operations. Two of which link into the mentions developments above. Sensori-motor is the opening stage within piagets theory. He believed this stage acres between the ages of 0-2 years. This phase relates to physical development, for the duration of this stage the child is ought to increase the control over their movements. One of the first movements that should be detected is reflex’s.
A baby uses this movement at a very early stage of life in reason to survive. The way in which a baby/child learns to development along with maintain movement is by continually repeating itself until fully corrected. To endorse his theory, piaget invented the ‘object permanence’ test. Research shows that children under 8 months will acknowledge as well as believe the disappearance of an object, this may be because children only concede things which are visible.
However between 8 to 9 months the child should recognized that the object is somewhere even though it may not be physically in front of them. The pre-operational stage also links briefly into language along with communication development. This stage frequently happens between the ages of 2-7 years. For the duration of this stage children often begin to use symbolic references in a way to communicate http://voices. yahoo. com/what-factors-contribute-various-areas-development-487563. html child care and education tina bruce