Sustainable Supply And Management Decision

Sustainable Supply And Management Decision.


Discuss About The Sustainable Supply And Management Decision?




Over the past three decades it has been observed that there is a presence of a gradual shift in the process of managing emergencies and crises (Wynne 2016). It has been progressively more evident that when the humanitarian efforts remain significant and needs further attention, the risk reduction that is community based and the emergency preparedness programs are vital for decreasing the consequences of the disasters, emergencies and other issues and thus it has become significant to protect and attain sustainable development. As opined by Gilissen et al. (2016) the incident management plan (IMP) is generally designed in a manner so that it can allow the extensively probable circulation between the interested parties and of necessity has had to have some more susceptible detail removed. The purpose of this paper is to show how risk and human resource managerment in the planning phase of emergency can affect the incident management.

Purpose of IMP

As stated by Schulte at al. (2015), it is seen that at the time of emergency making plans does not help to manage the situations where as the people do. Emergencies are fluidic in nature and can have numerous unpredictable aspects. The capability initiatives of human resources cannot ever be replaced with anything while dealing with the critical issues. As opined by Anaraki-Ardakani, and Asad (2014), thus it can be said that the purpose of IMP is to draw the structure of the team of incident management, to provide necessary and immediate guidelines for actions regarding explicit scenarios of emergency that can be managed from established process and also to give details of the useful and important contacts.

Explanation of emergency

To define emergency it can be said that if a situation can potentially harm or damage to the individuals or the government or private property. Thus to constitute an emergency, the situation should require the implementation of various arrangements by the emergency service department.

The Incident management plans are the sole property of the business organizations and each organization has their own IMP. As stated by Schulte et al. (2015), the IMP constitutes personal information of the internal stakeholders of the business organizations and in each organization there has to be one incident officer who will be having the IMP of that organization in order to respond quickly to the event that is concerning (Gilissen et al. 2016). The incident officers are the persons who are authorized to have the IMP and they shall be accountable for:

  • Notifying the concerned person to make changes in the personal details list if required.
  • Deleting any soft copy versions o the IMP to protect the organizations from any harm.
  • Keeping the authorized version of the IMP of the business organization
  • Updating the information constituted in the IMP if required.

Emergency planning

As opined by Carbonari, Ashworth, and Stravoravdis (2015), it is seen that The Civil Contingencies Act directs the organizations that it is their duty to inform all the stakeholders of the organization regarding the occurring of an emergency and IEM or Integrated Emergency Management has six major aspects and those are respectively Anticipation, assessment of the emergency, prevention, preparation for the emergency, response and the recovery phase (Wynne 2016).

It can be said that anticipation is one of the most important part of emergency planning both in the post and pre emergency phases (Wehn et al.  2015). Anticipation includes the identification of the possible risks, analyzing its possible impact and it is vital to anticipate and manage the interdependent, direct and indirect consequences of the emergencies by an active horizon-scanning for the potential emergencies and the risk factors. As disclosed by Gilissen et al. (2016), it can be perceived anticipation is the standard of the effective reaction or response and following recovery. At the strategic level, the focus of the risk should be upward, forward and outward.

Assessment of the risks is another important aspect of emergency planning and it can be perceived as a major tool for the process (Zhang et al. 2015). When all the relevant risk factors are identified, they are to be assessed properly to ascertain the likelihood of the occurring of such events and their impact to the organization.

The objective throughout the course of action is to increase the resilience of the organization against any identified risk factors and the emergency planning should be effective to prevent those incidents to take place (Hashemi et al. 2015). If there are any risk factors that cannot be prevented there the management of the organization should make sure that there are presence of some mitigation factors developed in order to lower any potential impact of those risk factors.

All the stakeholders of the organization can play vital role in the response and the effort to recover should be accurately prepared. As disclosed by Carbonari, Ashworth, and Stravoravdis (2015), this needs an understanding of their duties and responsibilities and how they fit in multi-agency and wider picture. This can be attained by an incessant cycle of training, planning, reviewing and assessing all the relevant activities to make sure that there is an impactful framework that is coordinated embedded across the business organization (Zhang et al. 2015). 

Response and recovery surrounds a wider range of diversified activities, though an impactful response shall demonstrate the preparedness of the specified business organization. As opined by Kirchoff, Ayman and Brian (2016), the phase of response needs the mobilization of the associated emergency services though it is important that the business concern adopts an integrated approach and response that can be guided by the collation of accurate information and communication. Any kind of response should be communicated via an escalation process to make sure that the required support systems and processes are applied throughout the business organization.

Recovery considerations must be an important part of the response from the initiation of an incident to make sure an impactful outcome (Zhang et al. 2015). The recovery in essence refers the physical, environmental, human and economic effect of an emergency. The integrated approach is needed and must be focused on the measures and steps needed in the process of restoration. When the instantaneous requirements are referred to the recovery phase, concentrates on the ability of the business organization in order to recover allowing it to maintain a specific level of service (Allen et al. 2017).

Anatomy of emergency planning

As disclosed by Zhang et al. (2015), the disaster and emergency planning is a new field of research and this field is developing in a rapid manner getting driven by burgeoning vulnerabilities, emerging risks and intensifying hazards. Thus there are no accurate formulas following which a successful emergency plan can be made (Kirchoff, Ayman and Brian 2016).

Emergency management

As stated by Okun, Rebecca and Paul (2016), the fundamental source is information and thus everything that is probable must be done to make sure that the communication and the flow of information is distributed properly for the best interest of the organization in order to manage emergencies. The management of emergencies should be supported by proper planning and must make it sure that the business organization can function properly under any odd circumstances. As stated by Pani (2016), the emergency plan must ensure that every member of the disaster prevention team has a vital role behind the emergency planning. As seen by Jay et al. (2015), one method to highlight the relation between emergency planning and emergency management is by the provisions to manage the shared information. Communication while in emergency must be flexible, clear to understand and sustained. The decisions taken while emergency and the communication must be kept on record (Zhang et al. 2015). The planner or the team that plans for the emergencies must help this process by making it sure that the technological means of the communication must be present in the face of failure that is evident and the priorities for the communication are familiar to the participants.

Plans and relevant legislation

As stated by Hashemi et al.(2015), it is a matter of fact that the emergency planning should be made following the existing legislation and in many nations throughout the world, the legislation is present in the national level as well as present in the regional levels that is widely known as the layers of the government (Okun, Rebecca and Paul 2016). For an example, in United States of America the fundamental federal law is ‘Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (the Stafford Act), that has been present since the year of 1974. In United Kingdom, the Civil Contingency Act is existent from the year of 2004 and in Italy; a law was passed in the year of 1992 that has established ‘national civil protection system’ (Tappura, Sirpa and Kaija 2014).

Multi Agency planning

As stated by Schulte et al. (2015), the presence of complexity in the emergency planning is the requirement to integrate various dimensions into the already programmed response of the emergency. As observed by Jay et al. (2015) the division of hierarchy addresses the layers of the government from local to regional to national level.  The geographical divisions show the spatial jurisdictions to that the plans address and probably also to the questions relevant to the mutual assistance. The organizational divisions refer to the various agencies that tale part in the ‘emergency responses’; for an example technical groups, volunteer institutions and blue light services like police, ambulance and fire (Fahimnia, Joseph and Hoda 2015). Finally the ‘functional divisions’ designate the various involved fields like the healthcare, government, public works, employment and economy. Thus the ‘ Emergency plan’ can be seen as the contribution to the method of articulating system of the response to the civil contingencies in which there is a presence of optimum balance between the integrating forces and to allow them a degree of freedom and autonomy of action.

Warning and planning process

Whether anthropogenic or natural, the hazards in the workplaces diverge considerably in their sum if lead time and predictability for the preparations. However the relevant responses and the warning are two significant aspects of majority of the emergency plans. As stated by Allen et al. (2017), the short term warnings should be differentiated from the long-term predictability of the hazards. For an example, earthquakes are the most predictable hazards in terms of fundamental tenets of frequency, magnitude and location; but certainly not with relation to the imminent shocks in a short span of time. On the other hand, As stated by Hashemi et al.(2015), professionals using tools like Doppler radar can issue warning for the tornados with lead time of 20 minutes to 120 minutes.

The warnings have three major components which are technical or scientific, organizational or administrative and social.

As stated by Hashemi et al. (2015), the ineffectiveness of any of these aspects makes the warning process inoperable. Technological information on the impending hazard should be converted into a message on which actions should be taken for the affected individuals, who should hear and react appropriately to the warning. As disclosed by Linnenluecke (2017), the ‘emergency planning’ should be able to determine how to transform the information regarding the hazards to orders or advices regarding how to react (Zhang et al. 2015).  It must prescribe the means of distributing the information and monitoring the public reaction to it. It is seen that sheltering and evacuation is normally the most accurate reaction to the warning and is possibly the best method of keeping or moving people out of the potential harm. Nonetheless, as stated by Allen et al. (2017), the routes and the means to evacuate affected individuals should be available. The horizontal evacuation can need reception centers with bedding, staffs, preparing, method of procuring, distributing food and many more.

Significant role of communication and information technology

As stated by Hashemi et al. (2015), in recent times, the emergency responses are immensely dependent on the ‘information and communications technology’ (ICT). Various algorithms as been created to help emergency operations; for an example, it can be said that, Terrestrial trunked Radio (TETRA) system can be used to secure flexible communication among the various groups and services of responders. As observed by Jay et al. (2015), the emergency plans should be able to demonstrate these unique opportunities and innovations as they assist in sharing the necessary information to build a synoptic picture of the evolving situation. The emergency plans can include various protocols for communicating and messaging in order to standardize and clarify them (Zhang et al. 2015).

The plans for the emergencies must describe and prescribe the basic structure of management and command to be used in case of a major incident or disaster. As stated by Hashemi et al. (2015), the contemporary information technology has an inclination to flatten the ‘chain of command’ and can enhance a collaborative form of management which lowers the dependence on the principles of ‘command and control’.

Crises and risk management in construction industry

As opined by Gilissen et al. (2016), the risk management is the most important aspect of the management of a workplace and the project manager has to identify the basic causes of the risks to eliminate those factors. In addition to that, it can be said that risk management in construction projects is a method of continuous identifying, analyzing and responding to the risks to attain the objectives of the project. In this regard it can be said that construction industry is immensely complex and heterogeneous in nature. There are various categories of constructions that vary from one another. As disclosed by Chen, WE Sjoukje van den Broek, and Olle ten Cate (2015), these projects include residential building or complexes, highways and various industrial projects. Managing the risk factors in the construction projects has been identified as a major process to attain the fundamental objectives in terms of quality, cost, time and safety along with the sustainability of environment (Hashemi et al. 2015). It is seen that on an average 1400 individuals die each year from the accidents in the construction sites and thus it has made it immensely important to strategically manage the risks in the construction projects Gilissen et al. (2016). It can be said that efficient process of risk management encourages the construction organizations to locate and quantify the risk factors in order to consider the risk reduction policies and risk containment. The construction organizations that are able to effectively manage risks often experience greater productivity, financial savings and improved rate of success (Zhang et al. 2015). In the construction sites the risk managements are actually a systematic way if locating, analyzing and responding to the risk factors to achieve success. Various researches show that the organizations who has invested a lot of time, effort and money for managing risks has been enjoying financial profit and success, on the other hand, the organizations who failed to identify and manage the risks, have been incessantly been victim of various undesired incidents (Gilissen et al. 2016).


Thus to conclude it can be said that the risk and resources management while planning for the emergencies positively impacts the incident management and at either national or in global contexts, all the crises, whether they are environmental, technical, natural disasters include mostly the same individuals and invokes same political and managerial challenges and finally needs the same type of general coordination approach and response mechanism. The emergency preparedness and risk reduction measures must be coordinated within the workplace. In this regard, it can be said that technical guidance and building resilience for some specific hazards like radiological or chemical accidents, terrorist attacks or disease outbreaks shall continue to strengthen under the responsibility if the specialized departments. The associated operational and technical parts of the business organizations shall carry on their alliance in complimentary and mutually reinforcing paths to support the implementation of the strategies. Thus it can be said that managing risks and resources while making the plans for emergency immensely help managing the incidents and that is extremely beneficial for any organization and all of its stakeholders


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Sustainable Supply And Management Decision

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