Controlling Communicable Disease


1.Description of the communicable disease (causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment) and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence).
2.Describe the determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease.
3.Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. (The textbook describes each element of the epidemiologic triangle).
4.Explain the role of the community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collecting, data analysis, and follow-up).
5.Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organization(s) contributes to resolving or reducing the impact of disease.


1. Introduction

Healthcare service providers are highly concerned about the communicable infectious diseases. The unhealthy and indiscipline life style of modern human beings lead to several different kind of diseases, most of which are infectious and communicable through one person to another person. There are several communication diseases such as chicken pox, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, HIV etc. Among them HIV is the most critical diseases, which become the main headache of the health care service provides, because HIV is increasingly spreading in the society. HIV is mainly spreading by the means of risky sexual behaviour as well as unprotected sex; due to unprotected sex the HIV virus enter to the non-HIV person from the HIV person. This is a fatal disease, which destroy the immune system of the human beings. There are several determinants, which accelerate the growth of the diseases in our society, such social and cultural background, economic factor, which influences the peoples to perform this type of unruly, risky and unprotected sex and that are main cause of HIV. The community nurses play vital role in the treatment of the HIV, several organizations also put great emphasis in preventing as well as treatment of the HIV patients

Description of the disease

HIV causes one of the most critical diseases called AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.HIV is the abbreviation of human immunodeficiency virus. If once in life you have HIV, it will be with you for the rest of your life (Noah, N. 2006). It is a typical blood borne disease, which transmits during sexual intercourse, it also can occur during breast-feeding and during the birth process.HIV disease can occur if one has the infection with HIV 2 OR HIV 1They are both retrovirus and they belong to the Retroviridae family. Scientists believe that a kind of chimpanzee in the region of West Africa is the source of HIV in human. That is why according to the research it can be, said that HIV may have come from apes to human beings.

There are no specific physical findings to HIV. Manifestations may include the following points.

Generalized lymphadenopathy may be, referred as a presenting symptom and it is very common too.

Flulike illness, malaise, generalized rash are the acute manifestations

HIV virus destroys the cells of the human body. It destroys the immunities power of the body.

2. Description of the determinants

Many factors can affect the health of communities and individuals. The factors such as genetics, locality, the state environment, relationships with family and friend and income and education levels all have substantial impact on health. The determinants of health are:

The economic and social environment,

The physical environment,

The behaviour and characteristic of the individuals

The health disparities in sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/Aids are, linked to complex bend economic and social determinates.  HIV can be, developed under various conditions, all around world with the consequent variations in the rate of transmission and mode of transmission.  In the developed countries men who have sex with the men after that needle sharing the drug user is increasingly concentrated in marginalized and poor sectors of population.  The structural and social intervention that focuses on the education, job security, housing, health services, social and income exclusion are addressed to the root cause of the HIV vulnerability. The physical environment can also leads to development of HIV is closely tied to the employment conditions. The people who have low level income can put them to higher risk of exposure to the contaminants that are harmful to the health.  

3. Discuss epidemiologic triangle

According to the epidemiologic triangle of Aids distinguishes the determinants into three levels, which includes individual, social and structural. The individual aspect can be, described based on the biologic, demographic and behavioural risk factor, which can influence the risk of transmission and progression of AIDS in the society.  The social level in the epidemiologic process includes the essential pathways by which the society and system of network structures link individuals to society (Bennett, L., & Searl, S. 1982). The system of network is at the centre of understanding the perceptive of diffusion and discrepancy division of HIV/AIDS in the residents of the subgroups. The structural factor mainly related to the social and economic factor of the population along with the established laws and policies in order to avoid issues related to this communicable disease. The Cultural context, social networks, neighbourhood effects and social capital are the important social level factors in HIV/AIDS epidemiology.  There are five main categories of structural-level factors; they are legal structures, the policy environment, structural violence and discrimination, war and militarization and demographic change.

Role of community nurse

Collection of the data, case finding and analysis of the data related to the cause and prevention of HIV disease is very crucial for the nurses. There are certain principles followed in nursing for the treatment of HIV. The nurses should have the ability to identify the desired stage of illness of the disease. Proper data should be, collected related to the cause of the diseases. Complete analysis is very crucial and it should be, executed with the help of the doctors as well as the professionals of the health care centres.  Appropriate methods should be, adopted by the nurses related to the finding of the cause of the disease. Nurses should execute their proper skills for the treatment of the patients. There should be proper food choice provided to the patients from the nurses as well as there should be proper washing of the hands of patients as it is a communicable disease. There should be proper preventive measures guided from the nurses to the patients relating to the spraying of this disease. Analysis of the data helps in proper identification of the disease and helps to provide proper solution to the disease (Hawker, J. 2005).

4. Organization that address the communicable disease

CDC helps in providing perfect resolution for the prevention of the HIV disease. The organization implements advanced technical methods in the prevention of this disease. First of all the organization identifies the occurring of this disease. Then it implements various methods of effective treatment and provides proper guidance to the patients related to the food choice and proper washing of the hands. These methods help in not spraying of the disease to the other people. It provides resolution to the patients related to HIV meditations, prevention programs and provides guidance related to high risk of the disease.  Screening as well as treatment of the disease HIV plays a vital role in curing of this particular disease.


HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus is the virus that affects a human being to suffer from AIDS, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. In this disease the symptom worsens as the infection increases. HIV affecting the person in the fluids of the body causing the disease to spread from one person to another as the person comes in contract through passing the blood or through sexual contact. The social determinant of the disease is huge as this disease is not accepted in the society. There are activities conducted by NGOs providing knowledge about the disease and ways the patients should be, treated. Even the discrimination between different classes or sections of society effects the treatment of the disease.

This disease is infectious bringing the triangle or the three corners as; Agent, Host and Environment. The Epidemiologic Triangle should be broken in order to stop the continuation of the disease. The roles of the community nurses are to spread awareness of the disease in the family members, friends and the community.


Noah, N. (2006). Controlling communicable disease. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.Hawker, J. (2005). Communicable disease control handbook (2nd ed.). Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Pub.Bennett, L., & Searl, S. (1982). Communicable disease handbook. New York: Wiley.

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