A Glimpse of the Japanese Era through Filipino Paintings Essay

I.1 Background in the selection of the topic and AV Media to use.

In Philippine history, many countries had tried to own the lands from when the time Spaniards first stepped in to the time of World War II where the country was invaded by Japanese army. Because of the invasions and wars, many Filipino people sacrificed their lives for freedom and democracy. Just like the national hero, Dr. Jose Rizal who sacrificed his life to awaken people’s patriotism, many artists also made artworks to express their feelings on how the natives were treated back then.

Flash card, from the term itself, is a card used to display something including words and even images for pictorial cards just like posters. They are simple, cheap, versatile, yet often underexploited resources. Using them is a great way to present topics that include images and other visual symbols. With the aid of flash cards as instructional module, audience could learn better, understand and remember about the life of the Filipino people under the Japanese administration through some of the paintings made by Filipino painters.

I.2 Importance and Significance of the chosen topic and the AV Media to use At present, the rise of new artworks is noticeable worldwide. Sometimes, artworks of the earlier times are neglected and forgotten, thus this topic is chosen to have a glimpse of our past and look back on the happenings that leaved significant marks in our history. This topic would also help the present generation recall about the country’s historical events and create a sense of nationalism to fight for freedom.

Topics on artworks such as in the field of painting should at least include visual media to enhance discussion and keep the interest of the audience. The use of flash cards with printed image of the actual paintings on the Japanese occupation could help audience visualize, learn more and understand better the life of the people and the condition of the country back then. On the side of the lecturer, he doesn’t have to spend too much since he can create his own sets of flash cards for his specific needs. IIOBJECTIVES.

II.1 General Objective
To describe the art of painting that reflects the condition of the country during the Japanese times
II.2 Specific Objectives
To describe the nature of the paintings of the Japanese era and the styles used by the painters To discuss the purpose or intention of the painters and what message they want to convey in making their artwork III.DISCUSSION

III.1 Review of Literature of the chosen Topic and AV Media Chosen
From one colonizer to another–after more than three centuries of Spanish rule, the Americans came and then the Japanese to enslave our country. In response to the Japanese propaganda, according to Dr. Alice G. Guillermo, Filipino painters reacted by producing the following works: • paintings that may be implicitly supportive of the Japanese occupation such as Vicente Alvarez Dizon’s “A Day Begins” done in 1942 • genre scenes that seem neutral such as Crispin V.

Lopez’s “Baguio Market” made in 1943 showing Japanese soldiers interacting with women vegetable vendors • paintings that bring out national identity such as Emilio G. Santiago’s “Christmas Eve” made in 1942 which shows a traditional Filipino scene that evokes nostalgia • paintings alluding to the social conditions of the time such as Pilar M. Santiago’s “Evacuees” made in 1941,Irineo Miranda’s Home from Work made in 1944, and Simon Saulog’s Conspiracy made in 1943 which shows a group of men in an evening meeting which suggests to the underground anti-Japanese movement.

A suspension on artistic activity was prevalent during the Japanese occupation. However, some visual artists still managed to produce artworks based on the atrocities brought by the war. Artists represented in the collection: Dominador Castañeda, Demetrio Diego, Diosdado Lorenzo, Romeo Tabuena, Gene Cabrera and others.

In the field of painting, the most disturbing and the largest is Diosdado Lorenzo’s “Rape and Massacre in Ermita”. Lorenzo’s painting portraying two Japanese soldiers raping and killing family members in an Ermita home depicted a common horror not just in Manila neighborhoods but throughout many parts of the country. A young girl in the foreground is already dead from stab wounds, while another young girl with long hair in the background is naked and wounded.

The husband has just been bayoneted. The wife struggling with a Japanese soldier clutching a knife, her breasts exposed, is about to be raped and murdered. A crying baby in a crib is a foreboding sign. There were countless stories by World War II survivors who saw Japanese soldiers flinging babies into the air and thrusting them with bayonets as they fell to earth. An altar with dangling rosaries is set on one side, mute and helpless. Tropical foliage seen from an open window vainly hides the fire and terror occurring outside.

Dominador Castaneda’s work, entitled “Doomed Family” is of a different intensity but harrowing as well. Done in 1945, this oil on canvas has the feel of a silent scream. A mother lays dead; her long hair on the floor simulates blood. A lifeless father is bound in rope, his bloodied back mercilessly whipped. A child, still alive and tied, has her mouth open emitting perhaps a frightened helpless wail. One cannot tell if they are depicted in a home or in a cell. Their doom in the dark is the only certainty.

A third painting related to World War II is entitled “Capas” by Demetrio Diego, a distinguished painter and former chief artist for the Sunday Times Magazine. It depicts the slow and agonizing death of Filipino prisoners-of-war in a Tarlac internment camp. The prisoner in the center seems to check on his companion’s condition beside him. The act is noble but futile. A man seated at the foot of the bamboo bed is malnourished and ready to die.

Another famous Filipino historical and war painter is Fernando Amorsolo y Cueto. He is known as “The Painter of Philippine Sunlight” because his works capture the brilliance of the Philippine sun. He paints from within the Filipino values, character and soul. The artistic trademark of Amorsolo and his greatest contribution to Philippine painting is the backlighting technique. In a typical Amorsolo painting, figures are outlined against a characteristic glow, and intense light on one part of the canvas highlights nearby details.

Portrayals of human sorrow and suffering were revealed through his illustrations of “women mourning their dead husbands, files of people with pushcarts and makeshift bags leaving a dark burning city tinged with red from fire and blood”. One particular painting, the Defense of a Filipina Woman’s Honor (1945), had two figures huddled in a corner: a man defiantly about to defend his wife or daughter from being raped or executed by an invisible Japanese soldier.

The Japanese soldier is outside Amorsolo’s canvas, but from the defiant look of the man, it can be assumed that the intruder is still inside the house. This painting represented his unspoken defiance against oppression.

There are several ways of presenting the topic—one of which is the use of flash cards especially for the images of the paintings which portrays the happenings in the Philippine history. Though there are other better ways of presenting it such as through PowerPoint, flash cards are more applicable especially when there is no access to computer for the operation, and they can also be used as back-up modules if ever there is power failure during the PowerPoint presentation.

Flash cards are handy and cheaper compared to other AV media. The thing that matters most when using flash cards is that they should be of the same sizes that are visible to a certain size of audience.

III.2 Materials and Procedure in the Preparation of the AV Media
The materials needed in the discussion are: cards (folder size) to be used as flash cards, printed photos or images of the paintings, and glue to mount the printed images on the cards. The first step in the production of the AV media is choosing an interesting topic that is applicable for the chosen media. Researching for related literature follows and summarizing the content of the research by choosing the most important details for the presentation.

Next is to have printed image of the paintings included in the research made and mounting them to the folder-size cards. The last thing to do is to practice for the presentation and proper use of the media chosen.

III.3 Application of the AV Media
The flash cards will be used in presenting the paintings made by the Filipino painters on the Japanese occupation. They will also be used to present important facts such as the title of the paintings, names of the painters and a little detail of the paintings shown. This will help audience to get familiar with the artworks, remember who painted them and what the paintings were implying.

III.4 Sample Test/ Evaluation questions
1. Who are some of the Filipino painters who made paintings about the Japanese period in the country? 2. What common message do their paintings convey?
3. What are the media used by these painters in creating their pieces? 4. What is the name of the Dominador Castaneda’s painting? 5. What happened to the artistic activities during the Japanese occupation? 6. Who was called as “the Painter of the Philippine Sunlight?” 7. What was Amosrolo’s biggest contribution to the Philippine painting? 8. Who was the painter of the “Rape
and Massacre in Ermita”? 9. How was the life of Filipinos during Japanese occupation? 10. What does “Capas” by Demetrio Diego depicts?

IVCONCLUSION
In the Philippines, almost all fields of art and our history have connections to other countries. The culture that the Filipinos have at present was influenced by the foreign countries that once colonized the Philippines.

For the four years of the Japanese occupation, from 1941 to 1945, the colonizers, as a means of propaganda, used the visual arts. They produced posters, leaflets, flyers, comics, and illustrations that were dropped from passing airplanes. These included colored drawings, watercolor, photographs, photomontages, or calendar illustrations.

The sixties and the seventies became a period of experimentation and exploration of new media, techniques, styles, forms of expression, and concepts in art. It also marked the increased consciousness of visual artists to bring their art closer to the people through forms like murals, prints, and cartoons. Paintings, for example, were one of the artworks that the Filipino people used in expressing their feelings to awaken patriotism of their countrymen. V.SUMMARY.

In Philippine history, many countries had tried to own the lands from when the time Spaniards first stepped in to the time of World War II where the country was invaded by Japanese army. Because of the invasions and wars, many Filipino people sacrificed their lives for freedom and democracy. Just like the national hero, Dr. Jose Rizal who sacrificed his life to awaken people’s patriotism, many artists also made artworks to express their feelings on how the natives were treated back then.

At present, the rise of new artworks is noticeable worldwide. Sometimes, artworks of the earlier times are neglected and forgotten, thus this topic is chosen to have a glimpse of our past and look back on the happenings that leaved significant marks in our history.

The general objective of this module is to describe the art of painting that reflects the condition of the country during the Japanese times. Specific objectives are: to describe the nature of the paintings of the Japanese era and the styles used by the painters; and to discuss the purpose or intention of the painters and what message they want to convey in making their artwork.

There are several ways of presenting the topic—one of which is the use of flash cards especially for the images of the paintings which portrays the happenings in the Philippine history. Though there are other better ways of presenting it such as through PowerPoint, flash cards are more applicable especially when there is no access to computer for the operation, and they can also be used as back-up modules if ever there is power failure during the PowerPoint presentation.

The flash cards will be used in presenting the paintings made by the Filipino painters on the Japanese occupation. They will also be used to present important facts such as the title of the paintings, names of the painters and a little detail of the paintings shown. This will help audience to get familiar with the artworks, remember who painted them and what the paintings were implying.

For the four years of the Japanese occupation, from 1941 to 1945, the colonizers, as a means of propaganda, used the visual arts. The sixties and the seventies became a period of experimentation and exploration of new media, techniques, styles, forms of expression, and concepts in art. It also marked the increased consciousness of visual artists to bring their art closer to the people through forms like murals, prints, and cartoons. Paintings, for example, were one of the artworks that .the Filipino people used in expressing their feelings to awaken patriotism of their countrymen.

VI.REFERENCES
Silva, John L. March 4, 2007. “Paintings To Remind Us Of Japanese Cruelties In World.
War II”.John’s Thoughts And Deeds.
Hernandez, Eloisa May P. “The American and Contemporary Traditions in Philippine Visual Arts”. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Salvio, Ma. Czarina Colleen C. September 2011. “Philippine Art Paintings”. When my Life Begins. http://colleensalvio.blogspot.com/2011/09/philippine-art-paintings.html http://littleprincess1.hubpages.com/hub/The-Controversial-Painting http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Fernando_Amorsolo#Historical_and_War_

Paintings
Killkathari. February 2013. B’s LOG 5.
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/using-flash-cards-young-learners.

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