Paris in the spring of 1889 was bursting with gaiety(joy) and excitement because of the universal exposition. Thousands of visitors from all corner of the world crowded every hotel, inn, and boarding house . every -where in the metropolis the hotel rate in London , was caught in the whirl of gay Parisian life . despite the social parties and the glittering light of the city , he continued his fruitful artistic , literary , and patriotic labor(makabayang pag gawa), he published his annotated(comment) edition of Morgam’s success; founded three Filipino societies, the kidlat club, the indios bravos , and the R.
D. L. M. ; AND wrote por telefono , satire against fr. salvador font. Difficulty of finding quarters. on march 1889 , it was extremely difficult For a visitor to find living quarters in Paris the approaching(papalapit) universal exposition of 1889 which was scheduled to open on May 16 ,1889 so the all hotel accommodations were taken . to the great disgust(pagkainis) of Rizal ,the cost of living spiralled high because the French land lords, taking advantage of great demand for living quarters, raised the rent of their rooms.
For a short time, Rizal lived in the house of his friends valentine ventura, at No.
45 rue maubeuge, where he polished his annotated edition of morga’s book. He transferred his residence several time moving in the hotel to another from one boarding house to another. Finally, he lived in a little room, together with two other Filipinos – Capitan Justo Trinidad former gobernadorcillo of Santa Ana, Manila, and a refugee(takas) from Spanish tyranny, and Jose Albert, a young student from Manila. Life in Paris. Although life in Paris was gay(joyful), with sparkling merriment and joyous social parties, Rizal continued to be busy in his serious pursuits(pagtugis/trabaho).
However were too precious for him to waste. He spent them frugally(matipid) and fruitfully. He used most of his time in the reading room of the Bibliotheque Nationale (National Library) checking up his historical annotations on Morgan’s book, in his living quarters writing letters to his family and friends, in the gymnasium for his daily physical exercises, and visiting his friends. In his spare hours(ekstrang oras), Rizal used to dine at the homes of his friends, such as the Pardo de Taveras, the Venturas, the Bousteads the Lunas, etc.
He was a good friend of the three Pardo de Taveras – Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera, physician by vocation and philologist by avocation and an artist and sculptor by avocation, and Paz de Tavera, wife of Juan Luna. These Pardo de Taveras were the children of Don Joaquin Pardo de Tavera, an exile(pagpapatapos) of 1872 who escaped from the Marianas and lived in France. On June 24, 1889, a baby girl was born to Juan Luna and Paz Pardo e Tavera. She was their second child, the first was a boy named Andres, whose pet name was Luling.
Her baptismal godfather (ninong) was Rizal, who choose her named “Maria de la Paz, Blanca, Laureana, Hermenegilda Juana Luna y Pardo de Tavera. ” In his letter to his family in Calamba, Rizal gave an interesting account of his life in Paris. One of these letters (dated May 16, 1889) related. My daily life in Paris in spent in the following manner: one or two hours in the gymnasium and I fencing, three or four hours in the library, the rest I use up in writing and visiting friends. . . Every other night from 8:00 to 11:00 we meet in a cafe where we play chess.
On Saturdays I am invited to eat at Luna’s house, on Sundays at Mrs. Juliana’s and on Friday, I visit the family of Boustead (also a Filipino ) where sometimes I take tea. ” In another litter to his family, written on September 21, 1889. He said, “ We filipino gather four times a week and we sing the kundiman. We eat sotanghon, adobo, etc. , on Wednesday in the house of Dona Tula, on Thursday in the house of hidalgo, on friday in the house of madam Boustead, on saturday in the house of luna, on Sunday in the house of Dona Juliana.
” Rizal and Paris exposition of 1889. Like any ordinary Filipino tourist in a foreign land Rizal was fascinated(nabighani) by the universal Exposition of Parish which opened on May 6, 1889. The greatest attraction of this exposition was the Eiffel Tower, 984 feet high, which was built by Alexander Eiffel, celebrated French engineer. Rizal and his friends attended the opening ceremonies and saw the cutting of the ribbon by President Sadi Carnotof the Third French Republic. Paris was jammed with thousands of tourist coming from all parts of the world.
Daily the Exposition drew a vast crowd of 200, 000 persons or more. One of the features of the Exposition was the international art competition, in which Felix R. Hidalgo, Juan Luna, Felix Pardo de Tavera, and Rizal participated. Hidalgo’s painting was awarded second prize, the paintings of Juan Luna and F. Pardo de Tavera each obtained the third prize. While Rizal’s entry (a bust which he modelled got no prize. This bust was quite good to qualify for the exhibition, but not good enough to win an international prize. Kidlat Club.
On March 19, 1889, the same day when he arrived in Paris from London, Rizal organized his paisanos (compatriots) into a society called Kidlat Club. Among the members were Antonio and Juan Luna, Gregorio Aguilera, Fernando Canon, Lauro Dimayuga, Julio Llorente, Guillermo Puatu, and Baldomero Roxas. The Kidlat Club was purely a social society of a temporary nature. It was founded by Rizal simply to bring together the young Filipinos in the French capital so that they sojourn in the city during the duration of the Universal Exposition. Thus he told Blumentritt in a letter dated March 19, 1889: Today we have formed a Kidlat Club.
Kidlat in tagalog means lightning and for the same reason this Club will last only during the exposition. We have thought of it and formed it in hour. It will disappear also like lightning. Indios Bravos In their sightseeing tour of the exposition grounds Rizal and the members of the kidlat Club were amazed to see the Buffalo bull show which featured the American Idians . These red-skinned Indians were proudly riding their sturdy(matipuno) ponies elegantly dressed in their native attire and wearing their war feathers and paints.
Rizal was enchanted by the dignified(marangal) and proud bearing of the American Indians . He told his friends; “Why should we resent(magdamdam) being called Indios by the Spaniards? Look at those Indios from American – They are not ashamed of their name. Let us be like them . Let us be proud of the name Indio and make our Spanish enemies revise their conception of the term. We shall be Indios Bravos. ” Thus(kaya/ganoon) was born a new society of Filipino patriots in Paris – the Idios Bravos (Brave Indians). It replaced the ephemeral(panandalian) Kidlat Club.
Its members pledged to excel Intellectual and physical prowess(kagitingan) in order to win the admiration of the foreigners, particularly the Spaniards. They practised with great enthusiasm(sigasig) the use of the sword and pistol . Rizal taught(itinuro) them judo, an Asian art of defence that he learned in Japan. R. D. L. M. society . Another society founded by Rizal in Paris during the universal Exposition of 1889 was the mysterious sociedad R. D. l. M. (R. D. L. M. Society) Many biographers of Rizal do not mention In fact , its existence and role in the crusade for reforms are really enigmatic(misteryoso) .
Of the numerous letters written by Rizal and his follow propagandist s , only two mentioned this secret society as follows:9(1) Rizal ‘s Letter to Jose MariaBasa, Paris September 21,1889 and (2)Rizal’s Letter to Marcelo H. del Pilar ,Paris ,November 4 1889 According to Dr. Leoncio Lopez –Rizal , grandnephew of the hero , the society has a sysmbol or counter sign represented by a circle divided into three parts by two semi-circle having in the center the interlocked Letters I and B meaning Indios Bravos , and the letters R. D. L. M.placed outside an upper , lower , left and right sides of the circle.
The letters R. D. L. M. are believed to be the initials of the society name Redencion de los Malayos (Redemption of the malayas ). So much mystsery surrounded the R. D. L. M. because Rizal rigidly guarded its secret exitence . Evidently , it was patterned after Freemansory . It had various degrees of membership , with the members not knowing each other . Only a few of Rizal ‘s trusted friends became memebers of the R. D. L. M. , namely ,Gregorio Aguilera ,jose ma. Basa, Julio Llorente , Marcelo H del Pilar , Mariano Ponce, Baldormore.
Roxas ,and Father Jose Maria Changco (Filipino priest). The aim of the secret society, as stated by Rizal was the propagation of all useful knowledge – scientific , artistic , literary etc.. – in the Philippine . Evidently , there was another aim that is, the redemption(pagliligtas) of the Malaya race. It must be noted that Rizal was inspired by a famous Book entitled Max Havelaar (1860) wriiten by Multatuli (pseudonym of E. D Dekker ,dutch author) . This Book exposed the miserable conditions of the oppressed Malay inhabitants of the Netherlands East Indies under Dutch rule .
A discerning(marung-pagkakaiba) study of the available Rizaliana documents and Rizal’s actuation show that the R. D. L. M. had something to do with the malay race . As Dr. Leoncio Lopez –Rizal cogently (kapanipaniwala) stated , Rizal’s colonization project in Borneo was “not merely to have a place where Filipinos could live and work with more liberty as well as free themselves from the oppressive conditions in the Philippine …but for something else more important, which is to have freedom of action to attain the aims of the R.
D. L. M. which means … the Redemption of the malay race. ” Rizal writing blumentritt from Hong Kong on February 23 1892 , revealed his intention to be a leader of freedom , if not in the Philippines , then in other lands “In Borneo”he told (caudillo) of the planters who are thinking of emigrating there with me . I feel flattered by the idea that I can still serve my country with my pen .
You Know very well that always , at all times, I am ready to serve my fatherland only my pen but also with my life whenever my fatherland would demand this sacrifice , But as I see that I am getting old , My ideals and dreams are fading ; if it is impossible for meto give freedom to my country , at least I should like to give it to these noble compatriots in other lands.
Moreover, the contract for his bornean colonization included such provision as the right of the colonists to by the lands, the free use of the seashores, and the unusual long term of lease for 999 years, “ a period of time long enough for many generation to form a nation and to consolidate its status “ and to realize Rizal’s dream of redeeming the Malay race. Annotated Edition of Moraga Published. Rizal ‘s outstanding achievement in Paris was the publication in 1890 of his annotated edition of morga’s.
Sucesos , which he wrote in the British Museum . It was printed by Garnier Freres. The Prologue was written by Professor Blumentritt, upon the request of Rizal. In his Prologue, Blumentritt commended Rizal for his fine historical scholarship. However , he frankly consured Rizal for two thing which revealed Rizal error’s, namely: (1) Rizal of the past in the light of present standard and(2) Rizal’s attack on the church were unfair should to be construed means that Catholicism is bad.
Thus Blumentritt said. The high estimation of your notes (Rizal’s annotations Z. ) does not prevent me from confessing that more than once, I observed you that participate in the error of many modern historians, who judge of centuring past, in the light of concepts that corresponding to contemporary Ideas. This should not to be . The historians should not impute to the men of the 16th century the wide horizon of ideas that move the 19th century.
The second point with which I am not in agreement has to do some to your fulmination against Catholicism I believe that not in religion but in the cruel method and the abuses of many priests should we look for the origin of many events lamentable for religion, for Spain, and for the good name of the European race. Notwithstanding the two blemishes of Rizal’s work, it is a splendid piece of historiography.
Rizal annotated and published Morga’s Sucesos because it was the best of the many histories of the Philippines written by the early Spanish writers, being accurate in the narration of events, unbiased in judgement, and unmarred by childish fantasies. Rizal dedicated his new edition of Morga to the Filipino people so that they would know of their glorious past. His dedication is as follows: TO THE FILIPINO’S.
In the Noli Me Tangere started to sketch the present state of our Fatherland: the effect which my attempt produced made me realize, before proceeding to develop before your eyes other pictures to follow, the necessity of first giving an understanding of the past in order the better to judge the present and measure the path traversed during the three centuries.
Born and reared in ignorance of our past like almost all of you: without voice nor authority to speak of what we have not seen nor studied I deemed it necessary to invoke the testimony of an illustrious Spaniard who controlled the destinies of the Philippines at the beginning of its new era and personally witnessed the last days of our ancient nationality. It is, therefore, the shadow of our ancestors’ civilization which the author now shall call before you.
I transmit to you faithfully his words without changing them nor mutilating them, adapting, only in so far as possible, to modern orthography and introducing greater clearness in the rather defective punctuations of the original, to facilitate its reading. The office, the nationality, and the virtues of Morga, together with the date and testimonies of his contemporaries, Spaniards for the most part, commend the work to your serious consideration.
If the book succeeds in awakening in you, the consciousness of our past blotted from memory, and in rectifying what has been falsified and calumniated then I shall not have laboured in vain, and with this basis, slight thought it be, we can all devote ourselves to the study of the future. In this historical work, Rizal proved that the Filipinos were already civilized before the advent of Spain. They had clothes, government, laws. , writing, literature, religion, arts, sciences and commerce with neighbouring Asian nations.
Rizal thus blasted the historicalheresies of the Spanish writers who claimed that the early Filipinos were savages and was of low mentality. Comment on Morga’s Publication Date. The title page of Rizal’s annotatedediton of Morga reads: “Paris, Libreria de Garnier Hermanos, 1890. ” From this printed date, all biographers of Rizal came to assert that his edition of Morga was published in 1890. However, there is documentary evidence to show that Rizal’s from Leitmeritz, saying: “I have just receive your magnificent edition of Morga.
This edition with your notes will glorify your name. ” Rizal himself, in his letter to Dr. Baldomero Roxas from Paris, December 28, 1899, stated: “Today I sent to Lipa four copies of Morga. Later I will send some more. ” From Barcelona, Mariano Ponce wrote to Rizal on December 31, 1889, saying: “I received the bookSucesos. Many thanks. I have read only Blumentritt’s prolongue. Truly excellent. Please send me immediately about ten copies thah I can send to the Philippines by the first mail that is going there.
” The three letters cited above — from Blumentritt, B. Roxas, and M. Ponce — are incontrovertible proofs that Morga’s Sucesosby Rizal actually came off the press in 1889. Otherwise, how could these three friends of Rizal read the book before 1890? Rizal as Historian. Rizal’s research studies in the British Museum (London) and in the Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris) enriched his historical knowledge. His splendid annotations to Morga’s book showed his familiarity with the basic priciples of historiography.
As he once told rigorously imparted. . . I never assert anything on my own authority. I cite texts and when I do, I have them before me. ” His knowledge of foreign languages enabled Rizal to read historical documents and books in the languages in which they were originally written. For instance, he read Pigafetta’s famous First Voyage Around the World in Italian; the historical works of Marsden, Raffles, Lord Stanley, and Wallance in English; the writings of Blumintritt, Jagor, and Virchow in German; the books of M.
Jacquet, J. Mallat, and A. Marche in French; and the works of T. H. Pardo de Tavera, Pedro A. Paterno, Miguel Morayta, and Pi y Margall in Spanish. By his extensive reading of archival sources and books in foreign countries, he acquired wide not only of Philippine history, but also the history of European colonization in Asia. Aside from his excellent annotations on Morga’s book, Rizal wrote other works which qualify him to be a real historian.
Among them were the two historical commentaries written in London, Ma-yi(December 6, 1888) and Tawalisiof Ibn Batuta (January 7, 1889); Filipinas dentro de Cien Anos (The Philippines Within a Century), published in La Solidaridad in four issues on September 30, October 31, December 15, 1889 February 15, 1890; Sobre la Indolencia de los Filipinos (The Indolence of the Filipinos), published in La Solidaridad in five successive issues on July 15, July 31, August 1, August 31, and September 1, 1880; La Politica Colonial on Filipinas (Colonial Policy in the Philippines), no date; Manila en el mes de Diciembre, 1872 (Manila in the Month of December, 1872), no date;
Historia de la Familia Rizal de Calamba (History of the Rizal family of Calamba); no date and Los Pueblos del Archipielago Indico (The Peoples of the Indian Archipelago), no date. The Philippines within a Century. In this article Rizal expressed his views on the Spanish colonization in the beginning of his article the glorious past of the Filipino people, then described their economic stagnation and unhappiness under the harsh and bungling Spanish rule. Toward the last paragraphs of the articl, he peered into the future and warned Spain of what would happen to her colonial empire in Asia if she would not adopt a more liberal and enlighted policy toward the Philippines.
Significant passages in this historical essay are as follows: To recapitule: the Philippines wil remain Spanish if they enter upon the life of law and civilization, if the rights of their inhabitants are respected, if the other rights of due them are granted, if the liberal policy of the government is carried out without trickery or meanness, without subterfuges or false interpretatios. Otherwise, if an attempt is made to see in the islands a lode to be exploited , a resource to satisfy ambition … shutting its ears to all cries of reason , then however great may be the loyalty of the filipino , it will be impossible to operation of the laws of history .
Colonies established to subserve the policy and commerce of the sovereign country , all eventually become independent … If the Philippines secure their independence after heroic and stubborn conflict , they can rest assured that neither England nor Germany , nor france , and still lees Holland will dare to take up what spian has been unable to told . Perhaps the great American Republic. Whose interests lie in the Pacific and who hand in the spoliation Africa may some day dream of foreign possession . This is not impossible , for the example is contagious , covetousness and ambition are among the strongest vices. Very likely, the Philippine s will defend with inexpressible valor the liberty secured at the price of so much blood and sacrifice.
With the new men that will spring from their soil and with the recollection of their past, they will perhaps strive to enter freely upon the wide road of progress, and all will labor together to strengthen their fatherland.. Then the mines will be made to give up their gold for relieving distress, iron for weapon ,copper ,lead and coal . Perhaps the country will revive the maritime and mercantile life for which the islanders are fitted by their nature , ability ,and instincts, and one more to free ,bird that leaves its cage , like the flower that unfolds to the air , will recover the pristine virtues that are gradually dying out and will again become addicted to peace-cheerful, happy, joyous ,hospitable and daring. The Indolence of the Filipinos.
This other essay of Rizal is also a prestigious work of historical scholarship . It is an able defence of the alleged indolence of the Filipinos In the spirit of a real scholar, Rizal made a critical study of the causes why his people did not work hard during the Spanish regime . His main thesis was that the Filipino are not by nature indolent. Long before the coming of the Spaniards he pointed the Filipinos were industrious and hard-working : They were very active in agriculture , industries , and commerce The Spaniard conquest of the country brought about a decline in economic activities because the Filipinos had abandoned their pre – Spanish industries and worked less than their ancestors .
Such decline in economic life was due to certain causes: (1)the native revolts and other internal disorders which followed thre establishment of Spanish rule ,(2) the wars which the Filipinos fought for Spain against the dutch Portuguese ,English , and other enemies : (3) the frightful raids on the coastal towns and village of Christians Philippines by the Muslim pirates of Mindanao and Sulu ; (4) the forced labour which compelled thousands of Filipinos labourers to work in shipyards ,roads ,bridges, and other public works resulting in the abandonment of industry ,commerce ,and agriculture ;(5) lack of stimulus to work harder because the people could not enjoy the fruits of their labor; (6) government neglect and indifference to agriculture ,industry ,commerce ;(7)
The bad example shown by the Spaniards in despising manual labor ;(8)the teaching of Spanish missionaries that it is easier for a poor man to enter heaven than for a rich man , hence the Filipinos prefer not to work and be poor so that they could easily enter heaven after they die ;(9) encouragement and propagation of gambling by the Spanish authorities ; and (10) system of Spanish as Rizal asserted , the education did not promote economics enterprise and activity , for , as Rizal asserted , the education of the native was “from his birth until he sinks into his grave is brutalizing , depressive and anti-human “and” deprives him of his dignity. It is true , admitted Rizal , that the Filipinos are easy –going and do not work so hard because they are enough to adjust themselves to their warm , tropical climates .
they do not have themselves working hard in order to live because nature gives them abundant harvests by working less than those in temperate and arid countries . “The Fact”, explained Rizal. ”is that in tropical countries violent work is not a good thing ,as it is death , destruction , annihilation . Nature knows this and like a just mother has therefore made the earth more fertile ,and more productive ,as a compensation . An hour’s work under that burning sun, in the midst of pernicious influences springing from nature in activity , is equal to a day ‘s labor in a temperature climates ; it is then , just that the earth yields a hundredfold . International Associations of Filipinologists.
Taking advantages of world attention which attention was than focused at the Universal Exposition of Paris proposed to establish an “ International Association of filipinologists “ and have its inaugural convention in the French capital . He first submitted this ideas to blumentritt in a letter dated January 14 1889. And the letter international association.
According to his prospectus, the aim of the association is “to study the Philippines from the scientific and historical points of view the officers were a follows: President ………………………………………………………Dr . Ferdinand Bluementritt (Austrian) Vice President ……………………………………………Mr . Edmund Plauchut (French) Counsellor …………………………………………………….. Dr . Reinhold Rost (Anglo-German) Secretary ………………………………………………………. Dr. Jose Rizal (Filipino).