1. Besides the commercial and religious goals of Spain in colonizing the Philippines, give two other reasons (political and legal) why Spain claimed the country as its possession or the property of the King of Spain. * They also claim the country because of their Spirit of Discovery to our country, improvements of their technologies (for travel and trading purposes) and acquisition of our territories. 2. What is meant by “crown colony? ” Can you give an example of a present “crown colony?
” * A crown colony also called a royal colony was a state that was under political control by Britain and that was ruled and governed by a Governor who had been appointed by the monarch through the secretary of state for colonies.
Cayman Island is one example of present “crown colony. ” 3. Why was the governor-general powerful? Enumerate his powers. * Because the governor-general himself has a widely range of own powers. He was also the King’s official representative in the colony. He possessed vast executive, legislative, and judicial powers.
He issued orders with the force of law, which were called superior decrees. On the other hand, decrees or orders coming from the King of Spain were called Royal decrees or orders. 4. Define or explain the following: a. Cumplase e. Capitan b. Audiencia f. Principalia c. Superior Decree g, Cabeza de Barangay d. Indulto de Comercio h. Ayuntamiento * A. Right of the governor to suspend the operation of a Royal decree or order relative in the Philippines if in his opinion, the sads order or decree would not be beneficial to the administration of the country. * B.
Highest court insofar as civil and criminal cases were concerned; established in the Philippines in 1583 to administer justice to the aggrieved people in the colony. * C. Orders that issued by the governor-general with the force of law. * D. Right given to the alcalde-mayor to engage him in trade that made him rich and powerful; right given to him to collect a part of the tribute to increase his income. * E. Head of the town or municipality, composed of several barrios; also called gobernadorcillo and/or capitan municipal * F. Own fields cultivated by their various retainers, even though traditional land rights had been limited to usufruct.
These heirs of pre-Spanish nobility were known as the principalia and played an important role in the friar-dominated local government. * G. Head of each barrio or barangay of the town who did not receive any salary. * H. Equivalent of today’s city hall; consisted of two alcaldes, twelve regidores (councilors), a chief of police, a city secretary, and few other lesser officials. 5. How did the Spanish king try to lessen, if not completely prevent, the abuses of Spanish officials? How effective were the steps taken by the king to stop these abuses?
* The King and ministers of Spain introduced two institutions in their colonies, including Philippines. These were the Residencia and the Visita. These two institutions were introduced to stop the abuses of high Spanish officials in the colonies. It is effective because the two institutions performs investigations to high Spanish officials. 6. What is your opinion on the effects of forced labor on the Filipino laborers? Explain your answer. * Of course, I would say that forced labor on the Filipino laborers was such a great depression and drowning down of the dignity of the Filipino laborers themselves.
They worked hard, but then it wasn’t enough to survive or to avoid and to flee from this nightmare. But because of forced labor also, the Filipino laborers gain more knowledge about things related to different types of labors that suddenly gave them many ideas. 7. Name and define some of the taxes imposed on the Filipinos by the Spanish government. Discuss with your classmate whether these were necessary or not. * The Filipinos were compelled to pay tribute called Tributo to the colonial government. The Tributo was imposed as a sign of the Filipinos’ loyalty to the King of Spain.
Those who paid were individuals between 16 to 60 yrs. old. In 1884, Tribute was nullified and replaced by the Cedula. It was a certificate identifying the taxpayer. The Donativo de Zamboanga, which was introduced in 1635, was a tax specifically used for the conquest of Jolo. Next is the Diezmos Prediales that was a tax consisting of one-tenth of the produce of one’s land. Last is the Vinta, a tax collected to fund vintas to guard the coastal areas of Luzon to defend the area against Muslim pirates. 8. What was the effect of the galleon trade on the Philippines?
Why did it decline its prosperous start? * The Philippines (specifically, Manila) became a leading commercial center of trading in the region. Because later on, there are so many allegations about the process of trading goods that came from Manila. Restrictions consisted of P250,000 worth of goods to be sent to Mexico and P500,000 worth of goods to be sent from Mexico to Manila. Later, amounts were raised to P300,000 up to P500,000. 9. How did the Economic Society help to improve the economy of the Philippines?
* Because of the proper division of the Society, that is capable to do their own tasks. And even the widely distribution of Philippine products and exporting of many goods to other countries that results to improvement of the economy of the Philippines. 10. Why were monopolies established during the Spanish period? What were the bad effects of the established monopolies? What were their advantages? * Because only privileged persons, such as high-ranking officials of the state, the Church, and the crew of the galleons, were allowed to engage in trade.
So that, the success of the trade were honored only to those privileged persons as part of the monopoly, even though the Filipino laborers are the actually creators and worked hard for those products. But then, the advantages were still to those privileged persons because like what I’ve said, the success of the trade was only honored unto them, and sadly not to those Filipino workers who actually worked hard for it. Chapter 6 1. Why were the Filipinos disillusioned with Spanish rule? * Because many Filipinos did some revolts and/or conspiracy about our freedom from the Spanish rule.
2. Generally speaking, what were the causes of these early revolts? Which cause, in your opinion, is the most serious and why? * To free from Spanish rule. Maybe because of killing Filipinos brutally and forcing them to work for Spanish leaders. 3. Was Lakan Dula justified in his revolt? Explain your answer. * No. Because he laid down his arms just because Legazpi’s grandson promised to exempt him and his descendants from the payment of tribute and forced labor. So he ordered his men to return to their homes in peace, and the governor pardoned him and gave him gifts of silk and gold.
4. Would you consider Tondo’s plot a conspiracy? Why or why not? * Yes. Because it shows secret combination of men for a purpose and a combination of two or more persons to commit any act punishable by law. 5. What factors would you give to explain the relative success of Dagohoy’s revolt which lasted for eighty-five years? * Because Dagohoy set up his own “government” in the mountains, with some 20,000 followers obeying his orders and practicing their own faith. 6. Why do you think the Moros were able to resist Spanish colonization and Christianization?
* Because the Spanish force lacked the number and military capacity to break through the Moro Kuta (defense forts), Mindanao is far from Manila, the center of power and governance, the Spaniards were more preoccupied in several fronts with wars or resistances by the Portuguese, the Dutch, and the various provinces of Luzon and the Visayas, and Islam provided the Spaniards an identifiable enemy called “Moros” 7. What vital lessons or insights have you learned from this chapter or topic? * Love our own country and be patriotic and fight for the freedom of yourself and your country. Chapter 7.
1. Explain how the Spaniards influenced the Filipino way of life as identifiably that of a Spanish subject. * They influenced every part of the Filipino’s life. They changed some of Filipino names, intermarriage, social life, amusement, changes in clothing, the Mestiza dress, the Antillean houses, the position of women, religion, geographical identity, Spanish language, printing and engraving, and education. Each influence also gives impact to Filipino people. 2. Describe the social life of the Filipinos during the Spanish period. Relate this to the daily tasks of the people at that time.
* The social life in any Christian community during the Spanish times revolved around the church because the friar-curate was the all-powerful person in the whole community. So that, the daily tasks of the people are to go at the Church and cooperate at the church activities, and even to the friar-curate. 3. How did Spanish-Filipino intermarriages affect the physical appearance of their children? Can you identify them in your community? How can you identify them? * Maybe, the skin color of their children is whiter than the common skin of the Filipinos, their eyes are colored brown and even their hairs are blonde.
And we can identify them because of these physical appearances. 4. Why were Filipino names changed to Spanish? What advantage, if any, did the Filipinos get from adding surnames to their first names? * Because before the coming of the Spaniards, Filipinos had no surnames. And also, because of that, confusion arose so they decided to change their names. They became more complete, and because adding surnames unto their names, they didn’t confuse about their names anymore. 5. How did the styles in dressing bring about social divisions and emphasize racial differences in those times?
* Only those Filipino women who married to Europeans have a right to wear mestiza dresses. And the mestiza dresses came to be worn by any woman who could afford to buy the material for such dress. So that, if you can’t afford to buy it or if you’re not a wife of European, your dress will not be as beautiful as mestiza dresses. 6. Compare the position of the Filipino woman before and after the coming of the Spaniards. At which period do you think did women enjoy a higher status? Give your reasons. * Before the Spaniards came, women are treated equally to men. But when Spaniards came, the women existed as dependents of men.
And they are lived to raise their children. And I think, women enjoyed a higher status in life before the Spaniards came because they are treated equally to men and they have their own independence. 7. What are the advantages of having one religion? Are you in favor of having only one religion for the Filipinos? Why? * Having one religion keeps the relationship of the social more effective and the unity (ex. prayers) will always be there. Yes. For us to be more united and our relationship as Catholics become one. 8. What is meant by “geographical unity? ” How does it differ from political unity?
How do these concepts relate to the idea of a nation? * Geographical Unity for the country was created by the conquest and colonization of the Philippines by the Spaniards. While Political unity is a politically organized body of people under a single government. They are related because they are both composed by those people who share common identity and culture. 9. What were the Spanish influences on the Philippine languages? Do you think these influences enriched the Filipino languages? Why? * Filipinos adapt some Spanish words and then we are now using it in our daily lives.
Examples are silla (silya), meas, cama (kama), ventana (bintana), cocina (kusina), and many more. And for me these words enriched Filipino languages because it contributes many words that we actually using at the present time. And it makes Filipino words more useful and meaningful. 10. Name some of the forms of amusement today which are of Spanish origin. What is the value of amusement? Were the amusements good or bad for the people under Spanish rule? Explain your answer. * The Sakla/Sacla (card game). To earn money for the winning piece of card. Bad, of course.
Because since then and until now, money is involved so it is already one form of illegal gambling. And sometimes, it also becomes one form of gambling addiction. 11. Name Spain’s achievements in education. What do you think of this kind of education? * The teaching method of the Spaniards was very poor. Science courses were not taught as they should be. So when one compares the educational system under the Spaniards in Philippines with the educational system of other European countries in their colonies during the same period, one will readily see the stark difference. 12.
As a whole, would you consider Spanish influences to be positive or negative? Give your reasons. * For me, Spanish influences brought negative effects on us. Even though yes, there are some positive and good influences that Spanish brought to us like religion, education, etc. But the majority is negative. Simply because they implement or emphasize the differences of each status in life of every man in a society. In clothes and education, social divisions, and emphasizing racial differences were part of every Filipinos life; and that’s because of many negative effects and influences that Spanish brought to us.
Chapter 8 1. Explain how the British occupation of the country opened the eyes of the people in certain regions to the idea of freedom and expulsion of the Spaniards. * British sent an expedition from India, which at that time was a colony of England, to the Philippines to occupy and seize it from Spain. They decisively attacked the Spaniards so the Spaniards defeated because their cannons were no match to the superior cannons and weapons of the English. So after that, the British took over the reins of government and guaranteed the safety of Spanish officials, the community, and property.
In short, the British did some moves to open the eyes of the people in certain regions to the idea of freedom and expulsion of the Spaniards. 2. Why did the economic plans of Governor-General Basco fail? * It failed in its purpose to improve foreign trade between the colony and Spain because of mismanagement and lack of cooperation of the Manila merchants who preferred to engage in the galleon trade. 3. Why were the Spanish authorities in the Philippines opposed to the education of the Filipinos?
* Because they are afraid that Filipinos would later ask embarrassing questions about Spanish misdeeds, incompetence, inefficiency, greed, and corruption. 4. Explain how the Filipino middle class arose. Who composed the middle class? * As exports in agriculture increased, inquilinos or the tenants in the haciendas and their families began to accumulate wealth. Together, the constituted the middle class. 5. Explain how the opening of the Suez Canal affected the educated Filipinos.
* It influenced some educated Filipinos and soon both were asking the government to introduce changes in the administration of the colony. Influx of progressive books and periodicals to the country is another effect. These books and periodicals were read by the educated Filipinos who learned about democratic practices in Europe, such as freedom of the press, freedom of the press, freedom of speech, and the free exchange of ideas among people. 6. What was the effect of the migration of liberal Spaniards on the educated Filipinos and mestizos?
* The educated Indios, mestizos, and Spaniards born in the Philippines showed their appreciation to the liberal Spaniards that we can easily understand that it shows their happiness upon migrating of them to the Philippines. 7. How did the Spanish Revolution of 1868 affect the events in the Philippines? * It affects the people’s lifestyle and events a lot. Living simply and avoiding luxury, dismissing the halberdiers of palace and by walking the streets of Manila in civilian clothes are some of changes and effects happened. 8. What were the reforms of Governor-General Carlos Maria de la Torre that endeared him to the educated Filipinos?
* He abolished the censorship of the press, he abolished flogging as a punishment, and he solved the agrarian unrest in Cavite. 9. Why was liberalism in the Philippines short-lived? Why was a reactionary governor-general sent to the Philippines? * Because the Republic of Spain ended in 1870 when the monarchy was restored and a new king assumed the Spanish throne. With this change from republic back to monarchy, the monarchist officials of Spain sent to be Philippines some like-minded Spaniards to take over the political leadership of the country.
Because to immediately reverse all the reforms of de la Torre before. 10. Explain what is meant by secularization. How did this lead to Filipinization? * Secularization is the activity of changing something (art or education or society or morality etc. ) so it is no longer under the control or influence of religion; transfer of property from ecclesiastical to civil possession. The movement would later be called “Filipinization” because of its racial overtone. 11. Why do you think the Spanish authorities called the Cavite mutiny a rebellion?
* Because this mutiny was caused by the revocation of the privilege of shipyard workers to be exempted from forced labor and from paying tribute by Govenor- General de Izquierdo. And it was also because they killed some Spanish soldiers and officers in the fort. 12. Explain the importance or significance of the execution of Fathers Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora. * The importance of the execution of three priests rested on the fact that the Filipinos who witnessed the execution began to think and feel as Filipinos, not as Ilocanos, Tagalogs, Visayans, Bicolanos, and others.
They suspected that because they belonged to a different race, the Spaniards, who had always felt superior over the Filipinos, took them for beasts of burden. The execution of Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora may have halted the secularization movement but not its advocacy for “Filipinization” of the parishes. The Spanish government with its cruel measures, continued, to frighten the Filipinos into submission. Nevertheless, the seeds of Filipino nationalism had been planted on fertile ground. JOVER SALVADOR IA12103 PROF. HANNAH BODEGON.