Felipe Landa Jocano is a Professor Emeritus at the Asian Center of the University of the Philippines and Executive Director of PUNLAD Research House, Inc. He has authored numerous books on various aspects of Filipino Society and Culture. Frank Lynch is an anthropologist who came to the Philippines and study Filipino values and the acceptance of this in the society , founder of Frank Lynch university.
Robert Hennig- B. S. Psychology, 1974, University of Wisconsin-Madison initiated the so called Social Psychophysiology Virgilio G.
Enriquez- is known as the Father of Filipino Psychology “Ama ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino”, Pambansang Samahan sa Sikolohiyang Pilipino, (National Organization of Filipino Psychology) a field he established in 1975.
Enriquez’ initial proposal that a Filipino concept of personhood centered on the core value expressed in the word Kapwa, a Tagalog word that covers the concepts of both “self” and “others,” has been expanded by those who studied under him, resulting in an entire system that seeks to describe the Filipino’s sense of being a person, and an entire field of study that differentiates the Filipino’s sense of being from those of other cultures, especially the western cultures.
Mary Racelis (formerly Hollnsteiner) is former IPC Director, as well as Senior Professorial Lecturer in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Ateneo de Manila University. She has published extensively in the areas of poverty and well-being, urbanization, community organizing and people’s empowerment, civil society, gender, children and youth, education, and socio-cultural change.
Her close interaction with community based NGOs and People’s Organizations over many years and her service on several local and international NGO boards has given her the informal title of “activist social scientist. ” In 1975, De La Salle University awarded her a Doctorate in the Social Sciences, honoris causa, while the Ateneo de Manila University conferred on her the doctorate in humanities, honoris causa, in 2003. In 2004, the Consuelo Foundation gave her the Distinguished Humanitarian Service Award. Aime C. Bulatao, S. J. , PhD is a professor, and clinical psychologist of Psychology Ateneo de Manila University.
He obtained Bachelor of Arts in the Sacret Heart College Novaliches in 1946 and studied STL in Woodstock College, Maryland in 1953. He got his Masters degree in Experimental Psychology in Fordham University, New York in 1956 and Ph. D. in 1961 in the same university. Jaime C. Bulatao -also conducted several researches and has written scholarly papers, theses and dissertations on areas such as psychology, education, culture and personality, group dynamics, guidance and counseling,and religion.
His current research interests and projects include: consciousness mapping, analysis, diagnosis and therapy through the use of computers, hypnosis and hypnotherapy and altered states of consciousness. Alfredo Villa-gracia Lagmay (b. August 14, 1919- d. December 15, 2005) is a Filipino pioneer psychologist, academician,clinician,philosopher and national scientist. He was conferred as National Scientist in 1988 for his studies relation to experimental analysis of behavior.
He is also the first filipino to be the first elected chair of the University of the Philippines Department of Psychology in 1970. Ledivina V. Carino – was born on 22 April 1942 in Marahan, Alfonso, Cavite, Philippines. She received her Bachelor of Science Degree in Public Administration in 1961, Cum Laude, from the University of the Philippines. She later obtained her Masters in Political Science in 1964 from the University of Hawaii. She completed her Ph. D. in Sociology in 1970 at the Indiana University Tomas D. Andres, a sociologist and author of the book dictionary of filipino values.
SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE- being taken by one’s fellowmen for what one is believes he is and treated in accordance with his status and not rejected or improperly criticized, and need social approval and acceptance by the member of the group. FRANK LYNCH compare the social acceptance of two countries ( Philippines and United States) but JOCANO came up with correctness to the comparison made by LYNCH stating that: UNITED STATES – social acceptance is also highly valued, through INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK in which to be socially accepted one’s member to church, lounge club, community fund drive and fraternities.
PHILIPINES – social acceptance is highly valued, through INTERPERSONAL FRAMEWORK in which occurs to the closely knit nuclear family and its range of kinship, with this one’s are being impressed during childhood with who his relative was and the corresponding right and obligation towards them. And with the social acceptance comes to intermediate values according to LYNCH, (1) Smooth Interpersonal Relation (2) Pakikisama: Smooth Interpersonal Relation- is getting along with others so as to avoid outward signs and conflicts, with this one uses friendly smile gentle manner, agreeable and gracious attitude to be socially accepted.
Pakikisama – folk concept of human relation and implies giving in or yielding to the wish of majority even if it contradict one’s own idea, actions such as napipilitan, joining others to compensate ones friend. But VIRGILIO ENRIQUEZ objected with the emphasis of LYNCH to the akikisama as one of the intermediate values, according to him PAKIKISAMA is not the National Value it is just one of the many level of interaction other levels are : Pakikitungo Pakikisalamuha Pakikilahok Pakikiisa.
Pakikipagkalagayan ng Loob Now to relate it with our Course, this social acceptance is very much important, citing that to be socially accepted you must comprehend with the existing group in which we exercise this two intermediate Values, like for example the Pakikisama : “as we work with institutions we shall encounter the so called LAKAD SYSTEM in which some people we know will approach us for assistance regarding Government Transaction etc. and because of Pakikisama we will tolerate them. ”
In relation with social acceptance various values are in lined and has been quoted such as; Reciprocity or Utang na Loob, Bahala na, Closeness and Security in the Family, Respect for Elders, Personalism, Hospitality, Patient Suffering and Paninindigan. Now let’s first discuss Reciprocity or “Utang na Loob”. RECIPROCITY OR “UTANG-NA-LOOB” Gratitude is highly valued in the Philippine society. A Filipino should at all times be aware of his obligation to those from whom he receives favors and should repay them in an acceptable manner.
“Utang na loob” invariably stems from a service rendered which is impossible of quantification even though a material gift may be involved. Here, one of the parties does not expect to be paid back. The degree of debt of gratitude depends to a large extent on the favor received. For instance, if a nearly dying patient was cured by a doctor and survives the family of that patient will forever be indebted to the doctor. ] “Utang na loob” in this instance is unquantifiable as there is nothing more important to a person than his life and that of his family.
A child is indebted to his parents for his life and is considered ungrateful, “walang utang na loob” (ungrateful) if he fails to care for them in their old age. We have a Filipino saying “Ang hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan, hindi makararating as paroroonan (He who does not look back to the place he has been to will not get to where he is going)”. However, debts of gratitude, big or small, cannot really be paid at all, as shown in another Tagalog saying: “Ang utang na loob, napakaliit man, utang at utang din kahit mabayaran.
Sa pakitang loob at tapat na damay ay walang sukat maitimbang (A favor, no matter how small, is a debt we must never forget since no money can ever fully repay it)”. With this Utang na loob comes connected the values such as Hiya, Amor Propio and Pakikisama, Hiya;has being associated with Utang na Loob due to the fact that when someone has a Utang na Loob he/she felt hiya to the one he/she owed (Pinagkakautangang Loob) on how to repay him/her.
Amor Propio or self esteem; also has been associated for the reason that when someone has an Utang na loob with you, confidence to asked favor, act or speak against or not against you may come,damaging or boosting you honor or self esteem. Pakikisama was also associated with it because when you have a Utang na Loob to someone you’ll get along with that person accompany them though against your will, thinking that this Pakikisama is the only way you could repay him/her. BAHALA NA Bahala na is a common expression among Filipinos which rests on the fatalistic outlook and strong dependence on spirits.
It literally, the Bahala na means “Leave it to God. ” The abundance of superstition can further encourage the superstitiousness of the Filipinos. Now this Bahala Na values does have two effects: The Positive aspects towards this value are Filipino become daring, development of courage, fortitudes and willingness to face danger which further develop their responsibility, concern, management and trust and attitude to refuse defeat. But though this Values ha a Positive effect it has also its reciprocal; The Negative effect, such as it brings to the Backwardness of the Filipinos, laziness and lack of initiative is just examples of this behavior.
For Filipino psychologists, like Thomas D. Andres, however, bahala na is not “fatalism” but determination and risk-taking. Filipinos do not leave their fate to God when they say bahala na; rather they are telling themselves that they are ready to face the difficult situation before them and will do their best to achieve their objectives. It is a way of pumping courage into their system before a difficult task. CLOSENESS AND SECURITY IN THE FAMILY: This is the most vaunted traits or values in the Filipino society; other term for this is close-family ties and family solidarity this is According to Bulatao.
She considered the family as the defense in the hostile world and a unit where one family member can turn to in case of hardship. Closeness and Security in the Family merely develop the participation of ones family member in economic, social, spiritual and emotional aspect through the pattern of interdependence. RESPECT TO ELDERS This is a value inculcated early in the socialization process during childhood we have been all taught to respect elders by addressing those words like Kuya, Ate, Manong, Manang and the like.
Politeness has been associated with this value; Filipinos are taught to become respectful individuals. This is mainly due to the influence of Christianity that tells us to honor both our parents and our elders. The use of ‘’po’’ and ‘’’opo’’’ when in conversation with an elder or someone who is older is a manifestation of how Filipinos respect their elders. Same with politeness, authority value was also associated; People show respect to the authority figure, by heeding and obeying them.