Nationalism: Revolutions of 1848 and Italian Unification- Unification Essay

Question: Compare and contrast the role that nationalism played in Italy, Germany, and Austria in the years between 1848 and 1871.

Failure of the Revolutions of 1848

Austrian Forces were driven out of Northern Italy and Mazzini established the Roman Republic in 1849. oFailure of Italian revolutionaries to work together resulted in Austria and France taking control of Italy.

Italian Unification

Italian Unification- unification movement in Italy shifted to Sardinia-Piedmont under King Victor Emmanuel, Count Cavour, and Garibaldi. •In response, the Italians replaced realpolitik instead of romanticism.

oCount Camillo Benso di Cavour of Sardinia-Piedmont led the struggle for Italian Unification. oEditor of Il Risorigimento guided Sardinia-Piedmont into a liberal and economically viable state. oThe Law of Convents and Siccardi Law sought to reduce the influence of the Catholic Church. •In response, Pope Pius IX issued his Syllabus of Errors that warned Catholics against liberalism, rationalism, socialism, separation of the church and state, and religious liberty. oGiuseppe Garibaldi liberated southern Italy and Sicily and in May 1860.

•Germany and Austria
Failure of the Revolutions of 1848

Nationalists and liberals of the Frankfurt Parliament failed to get support of Prussian king, Fredrick William IV, for a unified Germany. •Humiliation of Olmutz- Fredrick William IV proposed a plan for Germany unity. Austria would a plan for German unity only if Prussia accepted the leadership of the German Bund, which is dominated by Austria. Austria did not accept its lost of sovereignty and stepped back.

German Unification

Zollverein, German customs union in 1734, is the biggest source of tension between Prussia and Austria. oKleindeutsch Plan is a plan of a unified Germany without Austria was seen as the most practicable means of unification among various German states. oOtto von Bismarck led the drive for a Prussian-based Hohenzollern Germany and gained favor with the king by the “Gap Theory” oPrussia’s victory unified much of Germany without Austria. •The kleindeutsch plan prevailed

•Austria was given generous peace terms
•Italy gained Venice from Austria
The parliament, Reichstag, consisted of two houses that shared power equally, while the lower house, Bundestag, had representatives by male universal suffrage.

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