Chapter 8 1. Explain how the British occupation of the country opened the eyes of the people in certain regions to the idea of freedom and expulsion of the Spaniards?
During this period, the Filipinos discovered how weak Spain was when it comes to armory when the British defeated them. Eventually, Archbishop Manuel Rojo surrendered Manila and Cavite thus exposing them furthermore as to how vulnerable they were.
2. Why did the economic plans of Governor-General Basco fail?
His plans failed because of his establishment of government monopolies.
These monopolies benefited only the government and not the people. There was much corruption because the government was the only one who can transact business and having the exclusive right to purchase, classify and sell all the products locally or even abroad made the people poorer.
3. Why were the Spanish authorities in the Philippines opposed to the education of the Filipinos? The Spanish authorities opposed the education of the Filipinos because as they feared it, Filipinos will come to learn about their rights of equality.
4. Explain how the middle class arose. Who composed the middle class? In 1834 the King of Spain opened Manila to foreign traders, thus starting the development of manufacturing and agriculture in the country. Many crops and other products from different regions were produced. Many ports were also opened including the introduction of the first modern machinery – called the sugar refinery. This started to improve the lives of the inquilinos or tenants in the haciendas as their families started to acquire wealth. They became the middle class, a group below the aristocratic Spanish officials and religious orders but higher or above the poor and uneducated Indios.
5. Explain how the opening of the Suez Canal affected the educated Filipinos. With the opening of the Suez Canal, travel from Manila to Spain was shortened. Because of this, there was an influx of progressive books and periodicals that circulated in the country, thus bringing in modern technology. Also, many Spaniards with progressive ideas migrated to the country influencing the educated Filipinos with their subversive ideas and activities who now clamored for changes in the administration of the colony.
6. What was the effect of the migration of liberal Spaniards on the educated Filipinos and mestizos? With the migration of the liberal Spaniards, the educated Filipinos were exposed to their subversive ideas and activities. And later on they were encouraged to go to Europe to continue their studies and prove that they were the equal of the Spaniards.
7. How did the Spanish Revolution of 1868 affect the events in the Philippines? The Spanish Revolution of 1868 affected the events in the Philippines by putting into practice the liberal principles of the revolutionists of Spain.
8. What were the reforms of Governor-General Carlos Maria de la Torre that endeared him to the educated Filipinos? The reforms of Governor-General Carlos Maria de la Torre that endeared him to the educated Filipinos were the abolishment of censorship of the press, removal of flogging as punishment and solving the problem of agrarian unrest in Cavite.
9. Why was liberalism in the Philippines short-lived? Why was a reactionary governor-general sent to the Philippines? Liberalism was short-lived in the Philippines when the Republic of Spain ended and the monarchy was restored. Governor-General Rafael de Izquierdo was sent in order to bring back autocratic rule, thus censorship of the press and restrictions on freedom of speech were restored. All those who favored Governor-General de la Torre were considered suspects that were spied upon.
10. Explain what is meant by secularization. How did this lead to Filipinization? Secularization was a campaign meant for Filipinos, Spanish mestizos or Chinese mestizos the right to administer the parishes. The secular priests felt that the position as parish head was denied to them because they were not Spaniards. This was eventually called Filipinization because of its racial overtone.
11. Why do you think the Spanish authorities called the Cavite mutiny a rebellion? The government believed it was a rebellion because some Spanish soldiers and officers were killed by the mutineers who were mosty Indios, mestizos , and criollos.
12. Explain the importance or significance of the execution of Fathers Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora? The execution of Fathers Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora made the people feel the need to unite being Filipinos and not as Ilocanos, Visayan or some other race.
Chapter 9 1. Explain the nature of the reform movement. What did it stand for? The Reform Movement was created to introduce changes in the Philippines. There was discontentment not only among the poor but also among the educated and well-to-do Filipinos. The Reform Movement was the start for wealthy and educated Filipinos to air their complaints through peaceful means such as writings, speeches, organized societies and artworks.
2. Name the foremost reformists who went to Spain. Describe each of them. The important reformists who went to Spain were: Dr. Jose Rizal, Graciano Lopez Jaena and Marcelo H. Del Pilar. Dr Jose Rizal observed early in life how the Spanish authorities maltreated the Filipinos which made him swore to work the freedom of the country. He went to Spain for further studies in Medicine and learned several languages. His important novels – Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo talked on the abuses and defects of the Spanish government which led to his death. Graciano Lopez studied in a seminary to become a priest and later on shifted to Medicine. Like Dr. Jose Rizal he observed the cruelty and immorality of the friars and government officials. He was a good writer and founded La Solidaridad, a newspaper intended to be the propaganda arm of the Filipino reformists. Marcelo H. Del Pilar, was the greatest journalist produced by the purely Filipino race. He finished Law Studies and started campaigning against the abuses of the friars and the civil officials. He founded Diariong Tagalog, a Tagalog-Spanish newspaper that talked on how to improve the administration of the government. Marcelo H. Del Pilar, like Dr. Jose Rizal wrote many books but unlike them, he wrote in the vernacular so he could reach the masses which were truly enjoyed and understood.
3. What did the reformist want? The reformist had several demands. First was to be represented in the Spanish Court, the right to vote, freedom of speech and freedom of assembly of the press, freedom of commerce, the removal of the friars from the Philippines because they were obstacle to progress, education of the people, reforms in the jails of the country and abolition of the diezmos prediales or the tithe consisting of one tenth of the produce of the land.
4. What is meant by assimilation? In what way or ways would it benefit the Filipinos? Explain your answer. Assimilation was one of the ideas included in the Reform Movement which aimed to make the Philippines a province of Spain thereby granting Spanish citizenship to Filipinos. If this idea was only accepted by the Spanish government, the Filipinos will enjoy the rights and benefits of being a Spanish citizen, ending cruelty and maltreatment of the Filipinos.
5. What were the aims of La Solidaridad? Why was it founded? The La Solidaridad was founded to become the propaganda arm of the reformists. It was aimed to fight reaction, to stop all efforts to keep the Philippines a backward country, to extol liberal ideas, and to defend progress.
6. In what way was Marcelo H. Del Pilar different from Rizal? As propagandist of the Filipino cause, who between the two was more effective? Explain your answer. Marcelo H. Del Pilar was different from Rizal in the sense that he wrote most of his books and articles in Tagalog so the Filipinos can truly understand its contents . For me Marcelo H. Del Pilar was more effective as a propagandist because his writings in Tagalog reached everyone from the poorest to the educated Filipinos. But because of lack of funds and his death, he was not able to continue this. Dr Jose Rizal, on the other hand wrote in Spanish which can only be read by the Spanish officials and friars and the educated Filipinos. It was only through his death that the masses came to understand his undertakings.
7. What role did the Pro-Filipino societies play? Why did they fail? The Pro-Filipino Societies were created as the starting ground for the reformists so they could find help from Spaniards with liberal ideas. The society was organized to propagate reforms in the Philippines in the form of a newspaper but then it was short-lived due to lack of funds and lack of leadership.
8. Explain how Masonry helped in the campaign for reforms. Name at least 2 Masonic Lodges in the Philippines during the Spanish period which helped propagate the cause of the Filipinos. How significant was Masonry for the Filipino women? Masonry is for the liberal-minded that’s why many Filipino reformists joined this. The aim of Masonry was the same with that of the reformists that’s why the two groups were actually hitting one bird with two stones. The Nilad and the WALANA were just two of Masonic Lodges established in Manila. The WALANA Masonic Lodge was composed of women. Through this the women were able to contribute their time to help propagate reforms.
9. Why did Rizal found the La Liga Filipina? What were its aims? Why was it not successful? In your opinion, was the La Liga a reformist or a revolutionary organization? Explain your answer. Rizal founded the La Liga Filipina as a civic society. Its aims were to unite the whole archipelago into one strong body; to give mutual protection of all members in case of necessity; to encourage agriculture, commerce, and education; to defend members against any kind of violence and injustice; and to study and apply reforms. It was not successful because the Spanish authorities felt it was dangerous which led to the arrest of Dr. Jose Rizal, instantly killing the Liga. For me the Liga was a reformist organization because its intentions were only to help improve the lives of Filipinos which was only a temporary solution.
10. Explain why the reform movement failed? The reform movement failed because: 1) The High Spanish officials in Spain were too busy attending to their own internal problems to bother the problems of a colony. 2) The reformists in the Philippines and in Spain did not have the necessary funds to make their campaign effective. 3) The reformists were not united because of jealousy among themselves. 4) He friars in the Philippines had influential friends and supporters in Spain who opposed the introduction of reforms.
Chapter 10: 1. Explain why Marcelo H. Del Pilar shifted to the idea of revolution. What made him think in terms of revolution? Marcelo H. Del Pilar shifted to the idea of revolution because the reform movement which aims to secure the remedies for their problems in peaceful means was not effective.The Spanish government ignored the plight of the people that’s why Del Pilar decided that revolution is the only way to achieve their goal.
2. What was the immediate cause of the founding of the Katipunan? What caused Bonifacio to change tactics and strategy? Was he right to make such a change? The immediate cause of the founding of the Katipunan was to recruit Filipinos to become members through the method called the triangle system which aimed to minimize the danger of discovery by the Spanish authorities. But Bonifacio realized that the method was very slow in recruiting its members so he decided to adopt the system used by Masonry in enlisting its members which was a good idea because it was faster than the triangle method.
3. Explain briefly the “triangle method.” How successful was it in recruiting members for the Katipunan? The triangle method of enlisting members of the Katipunan started with a member recruiting 2 new members who did not know each other and the 2 new members will do the same.It was not that successful because they were able to enlist few members. This method was very slow in its process that’s why they just decided to get as many new members as they could.
4. What were the aims of the Katipunan? In what ways was the Katipunan different from La Liga Filipina? The aims of the Katipunan were based on civic, political and moral objectives.Civic objective was based on the principle of self-help and the defense of the weak and the poor. Political objective was the separation of the Philippines from Spain and lastly moral objective focused on the teaching of good manners, hygiene, and good moral character. The La Liga worked for radical reforms using peaceful means while the Katipunan on the hand aimed to regain the Philippines and be freed from slavery through revolutionary means.
5. In what way did the Katipunan government resemble or differ from the Spanish colonial government? The Katipunan stood as a real government like that of Spain because it was governed by a Supreme Council as it was a King for Spain. They also had the Sangguniang Hukuman which was the Spanish Cortes.But the Katipunan was more nationalistic in nature because they had teachings called the Decalogue that must be the guide of the members. And most of all every activity of the Katipunan government was done in secrecy so as not to de discovered by the Spanish authorities.
6. When Bonifacio worked for the replacement of Deodato Arellano and Roman Basa as supremo of the Katipunan, what trait or character did he show? Was Bonifacio right in replacing Arellano and Basa? Give your reasons. Bonifacio was a very perfectionist man. He saw that Arellano and Basa were not good in doing their jobs that’s why he decided on his own to work for their replacement. He proved himself to be a better leader but the means of replacing Basa and Arellano was based on his influence. But on the other hand, the lack of leadership of Arellano and Basa wasted the time of the Katupunan.
7. Name the grades of membership of the katipunan and their respective passwords. What do you notice about the passwords, particularly the use of Rizal for the highest member? The first grade was the catipon with their password – Anak ng Bayan, the second was kawal with their password GOM-BUR-ZA and lastly, Bayani with password RIZAL. The highest member being the leader and founder of the Katipunan used Rizal as password being their ultimate source of inspiration in their fight for freedom.
8. Explain why Bonifacio invented the Katipunan secret codes. How would you characterize Bonifacio for inventing such codes? Bonifacio invented the codes to avoid being discovered by the Spaniards.He had shown his ingenuity knowing this would protect the Katipunan by making it difficult for the Spaniards to read letters or any written communication.
9. Why were the Katipunan members called the sons of the people? Explain this very carefully. They were called the sons of the people because their ultimate goal was to free the Philippines from Spain and to protect the rights of the people. In The Katungkulang Gagawin ng mga Anak ng Bayan which was written by Bonifacio, stated that love of God is also love of country and this too is love of one’s fellowmen. By this statement alone the Katipuneros proved themselves to be guardian of the Filipino people that,s why they were the sons of the people.
10. Why was a Katipunan branch for women founded? Who were its members? Andres Bonifacio wanted to involve the women in the Katipunan that’s why a branch for women was founded. The members were limited only to the Katipuneros’ spouses, sisters, daughters and other selected women.
11. In what way did the Kalayaan help propagate the revolutionary ideas of Bonifacio and Jacinto? The Kalayaan contained articles written by Bonifacio, Jacinto and Valenzuela. The newspaper reached the farthest provinces influencing many Filipinos to become members of th Katipunan.
12. Identify and comment on the following code names: Madlang-Away; Agapito Babumbayan; and Pingkian. Madlang-Away was the code name of Pio Valenzuela stood for the fight of the masses for freedom. Agapito Bagumbayan, the pen name of Bonifacio, stood the death of Rizal in Luneta or Bgumbayan.