HRD OVERVIEW & POSITIONING
The definition of HRD is an integrated and holistic, conscious and proactive approach to changing work-related knowledge and behaviour, using a wide range of learning strategies and techniques in order to improve individual effectiveness and productivity. HRD is highly required in every organization to achieve their goals. HRD also defined as the capacity to incorporate learning into behaviour. HRD scope related to get the right people on the job, retain the right people in organization, and develop them in order to improve individual effectiveness.
Furthermore, the primary HRD function aims to improve individual, group, and organizational effectiveness.
It involves in training and education, organization development, and career development. Employability is the willingness and ability to recognize personal strength and develop self, which acquires new skills, knowledge, expertise to improve performance and effectiveness for both current and future job. In order to support the process of continuous personal development and lifelong learning of employees, it is important for HRD function to give attention for learning and with how it might be managed.
B. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN ORGANIZATION
Every person is fundamentally different from everyone else, thus managers must recognize that these differences exist and attempt to understand them. One of the HR department task’s is to identify and well known the existing employees so that they can place the employee in the fit/appropriate job/position, groupwork, in the organization. Therefore, better selection and recruitment process is needed to avoid errors in the placement of an employee. Recruitment and selection process aims to find the ‘right person for the right job’ by analyzing the person’s personality. There are big five types of personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness, negative emotionality, extraversion and openness.
These aspects have taken into account in the recruitment and selection process. These types of personality do not only give the benefit to the person itself but also to the organization. As we know that poor recruitment process can result in higher rates of turnover, reduced performance effectiveness, lower job satisfaction and reduces work motivation. Nowadays, Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is believe as an important tool to recruitment and selection process. Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is the extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions can motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and process social skills.
Human resources is important and valuable asset for every company. Many organizations improve their employees competencies to achieve the company goals. Most of companies are willing to spend a lot of money to develop their employees knowledge and skills. There are several ways to develop employee skills by conducting workshops, seminars, inhouse training, tailor made training, off job training and studying in the higher level of education in local or foreign schools. The 7 habits of highly effective people (Stephen Covey) are: be proactive, begin with the end in mind, put first thing first, think win-win, seek first to understand then to be understood, synergize, and sharpen the saw.
C. INTERCULTURAL MANAGEMENT – CULTURAL AWARENESS
Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group from another (Geert Hofstede). Culture is not static but is dynamic. Another definition of the culture is the uniqeness and trust that attach in one group that could be distinguished from another and become the habit which implemented in the daily life. In the shipping and transport organization, we could see many people from different nations work together. Intercultural is always coloring every company in the world.
Culture shock is the confused feelings one experiences when confronted with a large number of new and unfamiliar people or situations. To prevent a cultural shock, we must know why people do certain things. To avoid a culture shock we need to develop cultural sensitivity. Furthermore about intercultural differences there are Collectivism versus Individualism. This is a social theory favouring freedom of action for individuals over collective or state control. The big different between Individual and Collective Societies is the intensity of ties among individual it self.
D. EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT – MOTIVATION & LEARNING THEORY
Motivation is the set of forces that leads people to behave in particular ways. The objective for managers is to motivate people to behave in ways that are in the organization’s best interest. One of the famous theories of motivation is “The Dual-Structure theory” by Herzberg. Herzberg theory identifies motivation factors, which affect satisfaction, and hygiene factors, which determine dissatisfaction. Motivation factors are intrinsic to the work itself and include factors such as achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth. Hygene factors are extrinsic to the work itself and include factors such as company policy, supervision, relationship with superior, work conditions, status, and job security.
Learning is the process whereby individuals acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes through emperience, reflection, study or instruction. There are three learning styles models but the famous one is learning cycle model by Kolb. There are four styles of learning, they are: divergers, assimilators, convergers and accomodators.
E. ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT & LEARNING ORGANIZATION
Organization development is the process of planned change and improvement of the organization through application of knowledge of the behavioral sciences. There are three definition of learning organization but the famous one is Senge’s definition, learning organization is organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free and where people are continually learning to see the whole together.
F. HUMAN ELEMENT IN SHIPPING
Human Element in Shipping correlated with Human Error. Human element according to the International Maritime Organization is a complex multi-dimensional issue that affects marine safety, security and marine environmental protection involving the entire spectrum of human activities performed by ship’s crews, shore based management, regulatory bodies and others. Human error is sometimes described as being one of the following incorrect decisions, an improperly performed action or improper lack of action. Human element is influenced by some factors, they are:
a. People factors
b. Ship factors
c. Working and living condition
d. Organization onboard
e. Shore side management
f. External influence and management
The above factors could influence every seafarer during his work onboard the vessel. These elements will deliver good performance of seafarer or in contrary, these could result in bad performance of seafarer that would cause much impact to the people, animal and environment. We all know that many accidents on the vessels caused by the human error. That is why HRM and HRD play important roles to reduce this issue by allocating the right person in the right job. The causes of maritime incidents can be linked to a number of contributory factors:
a. Poor ship or system design;
b. Equipment failure through poor maintenance;
d. Ineffective communication;
e. Lack of attention to rules, regulations, and procedures;
f. Inadequate training in the operation of equipments;
g. Unawareness of the vulnerabilities of electronic systems;
One of the most valuable assets in a company or organization is human resources. By having good quality of human resources the organization will be able to running well. To obtaining good quality of human resource in the organization, in the beginning management has to make sure the good quality process of recruitment, so that management can place the right people for the right position.
Furthermore, one the HR department responsible is to developed human resource through training, learning even to higher level school. Through good human resource organization can avoid errors or failures in the company. To develop human resource requires considerable cost, therefore budget problem often happen in many organizations, moreover the level of success for this development program will not be known in an uncertain manner. Finally, human resources development is very important for people and organization to achieve the company goals.