The Campbell Interest and Skill Survey or CISS was designed and structured by David Campbell for the purpose of answering psychological inquiries on various specific human behaviors and thinking. The CISS was patterned after previous forms of Strong or Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory and constituting the Campbell Development Surveys which is composed of a series of psychological surveys. The similarity between the CISS and the Strong is that both psychological and interest surveys constitute interest scales within the context of the general and occupational dimensions.
The difference between the two is that CISS was designed to cater to both the male and female population, while the Strong utilizes separate occupational scales fitting for men and women. Overall, the primary purpose of the development of the CISS by Campbell was to improve and develop the previous forms of Strong in order to increase the reliability and validity of the particular survey, enhancing the value and degree of appraisal methods and techniques in the process.
(Hood & Johnson, 2006)
The reliability and the validity of the CISS as a psychological tool for surveying have been proved through various research studies conducted employed adults and students respectively. In determining the reliability of the CISS, a research study was conducted focusing on employed adults and their occupation. The research study was conducted for a three-month period in order to lengthen the application of CISS and obtain substantial and comprehensive data on the reliability and the validity of this particular survey.
The CISS was utilized in order to determine the interest scales and the skills of the sample population as related to their occupation. The results gathered from this particular research study was comparative to the accuracy, efficiency, reliability, and validity of the Strong making CISS equally significant and efficient method of surveying. (Hood & Johnson, 2006) In another research study to test the reliability and the validity of the CISS, interest scales were utilized to differentiate between students with varying academic majors.
The purpose of utilizing CISS was to determine whether the interest scales obtained from the students were compatible or fitting to their chosen academic majors. The result of the research study yielded that majority of the sample population of students was undertaking academic majors that were compatible with their interest scales. Since the results of the CISS were proven to be reliable and efficient, some professionals worked under the context of CISS and established tools and materials that were patterned after the dynamics of the CISS.
For instance, the aforementioned research study which looks into the interest scales of students as it is related to their academic majors led to the establishment of a Career Planner booklet which was intended to aid researchers and students in interpreting the results and outcomes of the CISS. Overall, since the results of the CISS in both studies meets the established standards and guidelines of Strong, the former is proven to be reliable and valid in terms of its use in various purposes.
(Hood & Johnson, 2006) The CISS lends itself to various appraisal methods, such as the Career Planner booklet already mentioned. However, the process of implementing CISS and appraising the results and outcomes of this particular survey is dependent on the goal or objective in implementing CISS. Since it is entirely related to the identification and relation of interest scales and skills of individuals, the administration of the survey through traditional means (ex. paper-and-pencil test, etc.
) and the interpretation of the results or outcomes will depend whether it is related to a career or occupation, a course or academic major, a particular task, program, and activity, and such. (“CISS,” N. D. ) However, in order to quantify the CISS for the purpose of interpretation and establishing a conclusion, softwares, applications, and programs may be used for this purposes such as the Q Local Software, the Mail-In Scoring Service, the Optical Scan Scoring, etc. (“CISS,” N. D. )
In terms of ethnic and cultural diversity factors, the CISS does not directly relate to multicultural concepts since it only measures or surveys the relationship between interest scales, skills, and another chosen or identified variable. Although the interests and acquired skills of individuals are influenced by one’s ethnicity and culture, this particular factor is not part of the evaluation or assessment process.
The CISS was intended solely to the identification of interest scales and skills of individuals as they are related to another variable such as an occupation, a course in college, and such.It is primarily a tool used for the placement of an individual to appropriate venues, settings, or environments. Therefore, it is not particular to a specific cultural group or population. (“CISS,” N. D. )
“CISS. ” (N. D. ) Retrieved January 15, 2009, from Pearson Assessments. Website: http://www. pearsonassessments. com/ciss. aspx Hood, A. B. & Johnson, R. W. (2006). Assessment in Counseling, Fourth Ed. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.