The earliest evidence of technological progress in the India is to be found in the remains of Harappan civilization (4000-3000 BC.). Archaeological remains point to the existence of well planned urban centres the boasted of private and public dwelling laid out in orderly fashion along with roads and drainage systems completing them. The drainage systems are particularly remarkable for the times since they are built underground and constructed in a manner to allow for regular cleaning. The small drains from privates homes connected to the larger public drains while the larger dwellings are invariably multi-storied and all homes were constructed from standardized fired and provided for separate cooking areas and toilets.
Storage facilities for grains and goods for trade were built as a public baths and other building intended for various public function.
And the urban centres planned riverine or sea-ports with accurate weights and measures were in use and ports such as lothal were developed as export centres of early manufactured products form smelted copper and bronze.
Kilns for smelting copper ingots and casting tools were in existence as were metal tools such as curved or circular saws, pierced needles and most significantly, bronze drills with twisted grooves. The drill enabled the production of items with unparallel precision for the times and could be regarded as an ancient precursor of the modern machine tool.
There is also evidence of planned irrigation systems and it’s appears that fire and flood control measures to protect farms and villages were also in decorated in a variety of colours and design. Cotton was grown and used to produce textiles. LEARNING INSIGHT: In their technology they well planned what they needs or priority. They choose what they much needed or uses, and every technology they think if that technology can contribute them a lot. Like they created a drainage system that very useful for their regular cleaning, I learned in their technology that every uses is important so that we don’t waste a money, time to create a particular technology and effort.
Definition and boundary
India is the second most populous country in the world. It is also sometimes called Bharat, its ancient name. India’s land frontier stretches from the Arabian Sea on the west to the Bay of Bengal on the east and touches Pakistan, west China, Nepal and northeast and Myanmar, east. New Delhi is India’s capital and Mumbai that formerly Bombay its largest city. The southern half of India is a largely upland area that thrusts a triangular peninsula into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west and has a coastline; at its southern tip is Kanniyakumri (Cape Comorin). In the north, towering above peninsular India, is the Himalayan mountain wall, where rise the three great rivers of the Indian subcontinent-the Indus, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra.
The Gangetic alluvial plain, which has much of India’s arable land, lies between the Himalayas and the dissected plateau occupying most of peninsular India. The Aravalli range, a ragged hill belt, extends from the borders of Gujarat in the southwest to the fringes of Delhi in the northeast. The plain is limited in the west by the Thar (Great Indian) Desert of Rajasthan, which merges with the swampy Rann of Kachchh to the south. The southern boundary of the plain lies close to the Yamuna and Ganges river; where the broken hills of the Chambal, Betwa, and Son rivers rise to the low plateaus of Malwa in the west and Chota Nagpur in the east. The Narmada River, south of the Vindhya hills, marks the beginning of the Deccan. The triangular plateau, scarped by the mountains of the Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats, is drained by the Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri rivers; they break through the Eastern Ghats and, flowing east into the Bay of Bengal, form broad deltas on the wide Coromandel Coast.
Further north, the Mahanadi River drains India into the Bay of Bengal. The much narrower western coast of peninsular India; comprising chiefly the Malabar Coast and the fertile Gujarat plain, bends around the Gulf of Khambat in the north to the Kathiawar and Kachchh peninsulas. The coastal plains of peninsular India have a tropical, humid climate. The republic is divided into 28 states: Andhra Pradesh; Arunachal Pradesh; Assam; Bihar; Chhattisgarh; Goa; Gujarat; Haryana; Himachal Pradesh; Jammu and Kashmir; Jharkhand; Karnataka; Kerala; Madhya;Pradesh; Maharashtra; Manipur; Meghalaya; Mizoram; Nagaland; Orissa; Punjab; Rajasthan; Sikkim; Tamil Nadu; Tripura; Uttaranchal; Uttar Pradesh; and West Bengal (see Bengal). There are also seven union territories: the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; Chandigarh; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Daman and Diu; Delhi; Lakshadweep; and Puducherry.
Kashmir is disputed with Pakistan. In 1991, India had 23 cities with urban areas of more than 1 million people: Ahmadabad, Bangalore (Bengaluru), Bhopal, Chennai (Madras), Coimbatore, Delhi, Hyderabad, Indore, Jaipur, Kanpur,Koch, Lucknow, Ludhiana, Madurai,Mumbai, Nagpur, Patna, Pune, Surat, Vadodara , Varanasi, and Vishakhapatnam. LEARNING INSIGHT: I learned that India is one of the biggest countries in the world. They most blessed country because they compass the biggest and the three great rivers in our world. I learned also that India is the second most popular country; other said that they are second popular because of their largest boundary and their popular rivers.
The ethnic composition of India is complex, but two major strains predominate: the Aryan, in the north, and the Dravidian, in the south. India is a land of great cultural diversity, as is evidenced by the enormous number of different languages spoken throughout the country. Although the constitution forbids the practice of “untouchability,” and legislation has been used to reserve quotas for former untouchables (and also for tribal peoples) in the legislatures, in education, and in the public services, the caste system continues to be influential. LEARNING INSIGHT: I learned also India is rich and popular in their particular culture. They composed of two major grouped, the Aryan and Dravidian. Even though they are divided into two they also one in terms of sharing and continued influencing of their distinct culture. They are also the land of great cultural diversity that even though the Filipinos admired their cultures.
India often like two separate countries: village India, supported by traditional agriculture, where tens of millions live below the poverty line; and urban India, one of the most heavily industrialized areas in the world, with an increasingly middle-class population and a fast-growing economy (and also much poverty). Agriculture makes up some 20% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and employs about 60% of the Indian people. Vast quantities of rice are grown wherever the land is level and water plentiful; other crops are wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, pulses, sorghum, bajra (a cereal), and corn. Cotton, tobacco, oilseeds, and jute are the principal non food crops. There are large tea plantations in Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. The opium poppy is also grown, both for the legal pharmaceutical market and the illegal drug trade; cannabis is produced as well. Fragmentation of holdings, inefficient methods of crop production, and delays in acceptance of newer, high-yielding grains were characteristic of Indian agriculture in the past, but since the Green Revolution of the 1970s, significant progress has been made in these areas. Improved irrigation, the introduction of chemical fertilizers, and the use of high-yield strains of rice and wheat have led to record harvests.
The subsistence-level existence of village India, ever threatened by drought, flood, famine, and disease, has been somewhat alleviated by government agricultural modernization efforts, but although India’s gross food output has been generally sufficient for the needs of its enormous population, government price supports and an inadequate distribution system still threaten many impoverished Indians with hunger and starvation. India has perhaps more cattle per capita than any other country, but their economic value is severely limited by the Hindu prohibition against their slaughter. Goats and sheep are raised in the arid regions of the west and northwest. Water buffalo also are raised, and there is a large fish catch. India has forested mountain slopes, with stands of oak, pine, sal, teak, ebony, palms, and bamboo, and the cutting of timber is a major rural occupation. Aside from coal, iron ore, mica, manganese, bauxite, and titanium, in which the country ranks high, India’s mineral resources, although large, are not as yet fully exploited.
The Chota Nagpur Plateau of S Jharkhand and the hill lands of SW West Bengal, N Orissa, and Chhattisgarh are the most important mining areas; they are the source of coal, iron, mica, and copper. There are workings of magnesite, bauxite, chromite, salt, and gypsum. Despite oil fields in Assam and Gujarat states and the output of Bombay High offshore oil fields, India is deficient in petroleum. There are also natural-gas deposits, especially offshore in the Bay of Bengal. Industry in India, traditionally limited to agricultural processing and light manufacturing, especially of cotton, woolen, and silk textiles, jute, and leather products, has been greatly expanded and diversified in recent years; it employs about 12% of the workforce. There are large textile works at Mumbai and Ahmadabad, a huge iron and steel complex (mainly controlled by the Tata family) at Jamshedpur, and steel plants at Rourkela, Bhilainagar, Durgapur, and Bokaro.
Bangalore has computer, electronics, and armaments industries. India also produces large amounts of machine tools, transportation equipment, chemicals, and cut diamonds (it is the world’s largest exporter of the latter) and has a significant computer software industry. Its large film industry is concentrated in Mumbai, with other centers in Kolkata and Chennai. In the 1990s the government departed from its traditional policy of self-reliant industrial activity and development and worked to deregulate Indian industry and attract foreign investment. Since then the service industries have become a major source of economic growth and in 2005 accounted for more than half of GDP; international call centers provide employment for an increasing number of workers.
LEARNING INSIGHT: Sometimes when we heard the country of India, we come in our mine the most poverty country, because sometimes that the way we recognized the country, but the truth India also is rich in the other products that we have, but sometimes even though we are plenty in that particular products we don’t avoid to have a two kinds of people, the poorest and riches. The India also is most rich in oil, that even though our country importing them because of their great three rivers. So India has also a big possibility to be one of the riches countries someday because of their products and the contribution of the people there.
The people of India have had a continuous civilization since 2500 B.C, when the inhabitants of the Indus River valley developed an urban culture based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade. This civilization declined around 1500 B.C., probably due to ecological changes. During the second millennium B.C., pastoral, Aryan-speaking tribes migrated from the northwest into the subcontinent. As they settled in the middle Ganges River valley, they adapted to antecedent cultures. The political map of ancient and medieval India was made up of myriad kingdoms with fluctuating boundaries. In the 4th and 5th centuries A.D., northern India was unified under the Gupta Dynasty. During this period, known as India’s Golden Age, Hindu culture and political administration reached new heights.
Islam spread across the Indian subcontinent over a period of 500 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established sultanates in Delhi. In the early 16th century, descendants of Genghis Khan swept across the Khyber Pass and established the Mughal Dynasty, which lasted for 200 years. From the 11th to the 15th centuries, southern India was dominated by Hindu Chola and Vijayanagar Dynasties. During this time, the two systems–the prevailing Hindu and Muslim–mingled, leaving lasting cultural influences on each other. The first British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast.
Later in the century, the East India Company opened permanent trading stations at Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta, each under the protection of native rulers. Learning insight; India started also in small things, they start nothing like us, but the leaders find the way that India is to be the one most popular country, but later on they recognized second of the most popular after the China. They recognize in terms of their achievements, invention and discoveries. They also develop their country and protect their country and what they have to reserve for the new generation.
Languages and literature
The language and literature of India has age-old tradition. Language and literature in India, in the present times is a wonderful mixture of various regional, national and international influences. However, the discussion about language and literature of India never completes unless they talk about the Rig Veda manuscript in Devanagari, during the early 19th century. According to the historical evidences, the Rigvedic Sanskrit is one of the oldest attestations of any Indo-Iranian language. Sanskrit is also regarded as one of the earliest language of the Indo-European language family, which includes English and most European languages. However, when it comes to spoken language, Hindi, always deserves a special attention. It is the “Sanskritized register” of the Khariboli dialect. In addition to all modern Indo-Aryan languages, Munda languages and Dravidian languages have derived a lot of words either directly from Sanskrit, or indirectly via middle Indo-Aryan languages. Sanskrit is the mother of all the literary forms of (Dravidian) Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada.
Part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, the Bengali language took its form from the eastern Middle Indic languages and its roots can be traced to the 5th century BC Ardhamagadhi language. Tamil also is one of the leading classical languages in India, which has its source in the Proto-Dravidian languages. It was the spoken medium around the third millennium BC in peninsular India. And the literary pieces in this language are in existence for over two thousand years. The earliest epigraphic records in Tamil language were found in the third century BC. Another major Dravidian language, Kannada is in existence since the mid-1st millennium AD. It was highly flourished during the 9th to 10th century of Rashtrakuta Dynasty. It was also popular in the Satavahana and Kadamba periods. The language and its history existed for over 2000 years.
The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiriis known to be inscribed in Kannada. Indian epics are considered to be forming a significant part of country’s literature . The Ramayana and the Mahabharata are known to be the oldest preserved epics of India. Versions of these great literary pieces have been adopted as the epics of Southeast Asian countries like Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. The Ramayana consists of 24,000 verses in seven books and 500 cantos , which narrates the story of Rama (an incarnation or Avatar of the Hindu preserver-god Vishnu) and his wife Sita, who is abducted by the demon king of Lanka, Ravana. In fact, this epic is considered the primary one to establish the role of dharma as the guiding force of living a life. The epic Mahabharata is the earliest of all. It dates back to 400 BC and is estimated to have reached its final form by the early Gupta period. Other regional variations of these, as well as unrelated epics include the Tamil Ramavataram, Kannada Pampa Bharata, Hindi Ramacharitamanasa, and Malayalam Adhyathmaramayanam. Many other epic literatures, written in classical languages are also popular in India.
LEARNING INSIGHT: In terms of language and literature in India also influences of regional, national or international. They have greatest language like us that we can give a special attention or we can be proud when we speak in that language. The India also is has a popular people in terms of their literature, they also popular because of their greatest contribution and controversial literature that they written even though it is maybe old other can mark in their heart and mine.
The Indian society is fast progressing, there are many people who are still superstitious and have a strong faith in the local beliefs. While some of them are quite hilarious, few others are really interesting, as many aspects of life are linked to them. Few beliefs even find their way into the Indian religious texts and scriptures.
The standard viewpoint is that most of the Indian beliefs and values have sprung with an objective to protect from evil spirits, but some were based on scientific reasoning. With the passage of time, the reasoning part behind the origin of these cultural beliefs and superstitions got eroded. That is exactly why most of these beliefs appear unsubstantiated and false. However, in reality, there are many such beliefs in the Indians culture which are absolutely absurd and have no logic behind them.
Superstitions are deemed as pertinent in India because these, generally, hint at future occurrences and can be either good or bad. Thus, anything from the call of a bird to the falling of utensils is considered an omen in India. Many of the traditional superstitions in India are connected with animals, birds and reptiles. For instance, seeing an elephant when one is leaving for a journey is considered lucky. This is because an elephant represents Lord Ganesha, the Indian God who is the harbinger of good luck and removes obstacles.
Similarly, other auspicious signs could be cawing of a black crow in one’s house, as it forecasts the arrival of guests. Seeing a peacock on a journey is also considered lucky, but hearing its shrill sound is bad. Indians feel happy if a sparrow builds a nest in a new house because it signals good fortune. A very old belief is that if you kill a cat, you have to offer one in gold to a priest. This belief or superstition was concocted by the priests to protect the cats, which are useful in killing the rats in people’s houses.
Leaving one’s home after wedding or for some other important task is a significant occasion. Thus, Indians often consult astrological charts to fix an auspicious time for this. Again, it is considered lucky to see cereals, paddy, cotton, hay or a newly wedding before embarking on a journey. In India, you may also come across or hear about people who help in interpreting other’s dreams. Even the daily life of Indians is governed by beliefs and superstitions. For example, Monday is not an auspicious day for shaving and Thursday is a bad day for washing one’s hair. LEARNING INSIGHT: A particular country even though they have a fast progressing we don’t avoid or omit to believe in our belief. We don’t have the right to control their self to beliefs, because sometimes in their beliefs they find the goodness but if there is good their also bad. Sometimes the country also recognized in their beliefs so we need to respect them.
India is the birth place of four of the world’s major religious traditions; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. Religion has been an important part of the country’s culture. Religious diversity and religious tolerance are both established in the country by law and custom. A vast majority of Indians associate themselves with a religion. According to the 2001 census, Hinduism accounted for 80.5% of the population of India. Islam (13.4%), Christianity (2.3%) and Sikhism (1.9%) are the other major religions followed by the people of India. This diversity of religious belief systems existing in India today is a result of, besides existence and birth of native religions, assimilation and social integration of religions brought to the region by traders, travelers, immigrants, and even invaders and conquerors.
Zoroastrianism and Judaism also have an ancient history in India and each has several thousand Indian adherents. India has the largest population of people adhering to Zoroastrianism and Baha’i Faith anywhere in the world. Many other world religions also have a relationship with Indian spirituality, like the Baha’i faith which recognizes Lord Buddha and Lord Krishna as manifestations of God Almighty. The Muslim population in India is the third largest in the world. The shrines of some of the most famous saints of Sufism like Moinuddin Chishti and Nizamuddin Auliya are in India and attract visitors from all over the world. India is also home to some of the most famous monuments of Islamic architecture like the Taj Mahal and the Qutb Minar. Civil matters related to the community are dealt with by the Muslim Personal Law, and constitutional amendments in 1985 established its primacy in family matters.
The Constitution of India declares the nation to be a secular republic that must uphold the right of citizens to freely worship and propagate any religion or faith. The Constitution of India also declares the right to freedom of religion as a fundamental right. Citizens of India are generally tolerant of each other’s religions and retain a secular outlook, although inter-religious marriage is not widely practiced. Inter-community clashes have found little support in the social mainstream, and it is generally perceived that the causes of religious conflicts are political rather than ideological in nature. LEARNING INSIGHT: I learned also that India known or recognized because of the big contribution of the religion. That all of us know that religion is one the biggest part of the culture of one country. They are also known because many of other religions in the world have a relationship in the Indian spiritual; Even though our country has a relationship to the Indian spiritually.
Form of government
India is a federal state with a parliamentary form of government. It is governed under the 1949 constitution. The president of India, who is head of state, is elected for a five-year term by the elected members of the federal and state parliaments, there are no term limits. Theoretically the president possesses full executive power, but that power actually is exercised by the prime minister and council of ministers, who are appointed by the president. The ministers are responsible to the lower house of Parliament and must be members of Parliament. The federal parliament is bicameral. The upper house, the Council of States, consists of a maximum of 250 members; the great majority are apportioned by state-each state’s delegates are chosen by its elected assembly-and 12 members are appointed by the president. One member represents the union territory of Puducherry. Members serve for six years, with one third retiring every other year.
The lower house, the People’s Assembly, is elected every five years, although it may be dissolved earlier by the president. It is composed of 545 members, 543 apportioned among the states and two chosen by the president. There is a supreme court consisting of a chief justice and 25 associate justices, all appointed by the president. Administratively, India is divided into 28 states and seven union territories. State governors are appointed by the president for five-year terms. States have either unicameral or bicameral parliaments and have jurisdiction over police and public order, agriculture, education, public health, and local government.
The federal government has jurisdiction over any matter not specifically reserved for the states. In addition the president may intervene in state affairs during emergencies and may even suspend a state’s government. LEARNING INSIGHT: Like us, the India also has a state organization that composed of president that they has a power to the country; but the different is the power is from their prime minister that we don’t have. The president have a big obligation for their country, they have also for the small places organization to help the president and the prime minister.
Traditional health care approaches
India is a country of 1.2 billion people; India contains extremes of wealth and poverty, with state-of-the-art hospitals and areas devoid of any formal healthcare services. This newly-launched program examines traditional approaches to healthcare in India and how such systems fit into the country’s overall health and development. Coursework will cover the theoretical and practical aspects of traditional health systems, particularly Ayurveda, yoga, and Siddha. Students will engage with a diversity of practitioners and healers through lectures and site visits to highly regard traditional health institutions.
Students will be able to situate these practices within larger Indian socio cultural and economic contexts. While modern allopathic healthcare is highly regarded across South Asia, local and traditional medicinal systems continue to be valued and regularly practiced. With the recent establishment of the new government department AYUSH (Ayurveda, yoga, Unani, Siddha, and homeopathy), under the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, traditional medicine has gained new ground. The program is designed for undergraduates studying health sciences or liberal arts. Indian civilization is one of the oldest heritages of mankind. It is comprehensive having multi faceted cultural aspects.
Ayurveda the mother of all traditional health care sciences is the part & parcel of Indian culture but in spite of this it has a separate identity & status. Ayurveda is co-existed since the emergence of humanity about 3 to 5 thousand years B.C. In Ayurveda ancient mega texts it is mentioned that, the Brahma creator of universe has recollected memorized the Ayurveda and advised for the welfare of the humanity. Ayurveda is the most pragmatic & progressive health care science, in span of time, it is enriched with many new practices, procedures & materials assuming the present status, the existing documented Ayurveda are the meager part of delivered ancient Ayurveda.