Building hydrocarbons containing functional groups

OL Lab 9: Building models of organic compounds

Learning Objectives:

  • Build virtual models to learn about the structure of organic compounds
  • Draw extended structural formulas of organic compounds

Compounds that are based on the carbon atom are known as organic compounds.  These compounds commonly contain, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen in addition to carbon. Carbon forms a variety of covalent compounds with varied properties. Carbon containing compounds are formed by sharing electrons, covalent bonds, between atoms. Most biomolecules, as well as most drugs, are classified as organic compounds. In this laboratory exercise, you will build models of organic compounds virtually and draw the extended structural formula of organic compounds. 

Online Modeling Resource: http://molview.org/

Note: Be sure to build each of the compounds as instructed using the online modeling resource kit.  This hands-on experience is an important part of this lab.  You will need to copy the models you build in the virtual modeling resource and paste the images into this document.  Please take the time to explore the structures of these organic compounds.

Exploration 1: Building models of Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons are a diverse group of organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons can be linear, branched, or cyclic. Additionally, hydrocarbons can be saturated, unsaturated or aromatic. 

Using the virtual resource build the extended structural formulas of the following compounds.  Copy and paste the images into the space below.  Additionally, type in the condensed structural formula.

Propane   Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:       Condensed Structural Formula:Butane   Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:       Condensed Structural Formula:      
Isobutane       Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:       Condensed Structural Formula:  Isopentane       Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:       Condensed Structural Formula:        
Ethylene   Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:       Condensed Structural Formula:Ethyne   Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:       Condensed Structural Formula:    
Cyclohexene   Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:                  Benzene   Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:  
Propyne   Extended Structural Formula:       Condensed Structural Formula:          Ethane   Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:       Condensed Structural Formula:  

Exploration 2: Identification of Functional Groups 

Part 2A: Building functional groups
Functional groups alter the properties of hydrocarbons.

Using the virtual resource build the extended structural formulas of the following compounds.  Copy and paste the images into the space below.

Alcohol

Ether

Ketone

Carboxylic acid

Aldehyde

Ester

Amine

Part 2B: Identification of functional groups:
Complete the table below by identifying the functional groups and names of the condensed structural formulas below.

Condensed Structural FormulaName of Functional GroupName of Organic Molecule
CH3CH2COCH3  
CH3CH2CHO  
CH3OH  
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2NH2  
CH3CH2CH2COOH  


Exploration 3: Building hydrocarbons containing functional groups
Using the virtual resource build the extended structural formulas of the following compounds.  Copy and paste the images into the space below.

 Difluoromethane   Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:                    Trichloromethane   Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:  
Tetrachloromethane   Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:                     

Propanol

Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:

Ethanoic Acid

Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:

Combine the propanol and the ethanoic acid from the last two exercises to make propyl ethanoate

Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:

Phenol   Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:            Dimethyl ether   Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:       Condensed Structural Formula:
Propanal   Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:         Condensed Structural Formula:          Hexanoic acid   Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:           Condensed Structural Formula:
Ethylamine   Virtual Model with Extended Structural Formula:           Condensed Structural Formula:   

Questions:

  1.  Write the names of a biomolecule (also known as macromolecules) that contain each of the functional groups below.
    1. Amine
    1. Aldehyde
    1. Carboxylic Acid
    1. Alcohol
  • Find an example of an ester used as a fragrance or flavoring and give the name, condensed structural formula, and flavor of your chosen ester.
  •  For each of the following, give the functional group and application
    • Formaldehyde
  • Ethanol
  • Acetone
  • Phenol

Reflection:  Consider what you learned from this simulation. Reflect on three to four key concepts that you learned in this lab exercise. How could the lessons learned in this virtual lab relate to a real world situation in the community/world or your future career?  Be specific in your answer (this should require 5-10 sentences).

Grading Rubric:

ActivityDeliverablePoints
Exploration 1:Build/draw all hydrocarbons: 5 points5
Exploration 2:Build/draw all functional groups: 3.5 points and complete the table: 5 points.8.5
Exploration 3:Build/draw all organic molecules: 5.5 points,5.5
End of lab questionsComplete all questions: 9 points total (Questions 1 and 3 are 4 points each, question 2 is 1 point)9
ReflectionWrite a 10-14 sentence laboratory reflection.: 7 points7
All Lab DeliverablesComplete ALL explorations and reflection activities35
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