Special senses anatomy

Special senses

4.1: Eye and vision

Revision questions:

  1. If the ciliary muscles relax, zonular fibres are __________ and the lens is ____________.
  2. What three adjustments occur when looking at objects <6m away? ie: close
    a) ______________________________________________________________________
    b) ______________________________________________________________________
    c) ______________________________________________________________________
  3. Which cranial nerve is responsible for these changes? ________________________________________________________________________
  4. Describe myopia and how it might be corrected.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • Compare and contrast rods and cones.
RodsCones
  
  
  
  
  
  • Is the bipolar cell disinhibited during phototransduction in the dark or light? ________
  • In the visual pathways, which fibres decussate at the optic chiasm?  _________________
  • Define the following:
  • Accommodation _____________________________________________________________________
  • Convergence

_____________________________________________________________________

  • Constriction

_____________________________________________________________________

Multiple Choice Questions.

  1. The muscle that relaxes when focussing in the distance is:
    1. Aqueous humor
    1. Lens
    1. Fovea centralis
    1. Ciliary muscle
    1. Retina
  • The area of greatest visual acuity is:
    • Aqueous humor
    • Lens
    • Fovea centralis
    • Ciliary muscle
    • Retina
  • Photoreceptors are located in the ______________.
    • Aqueous humor
    • Lens
    • Fovea centralis
    • Ciliary muscle
    • Retina
  • The mucous membrane that lines the eyelids is called the ______________.
    • Aqueous humor
    • Palpebral conjunctiva
    • Cornea
    • Bulbar conjunctiva
    • Vitreous humor
  • Hyperopia is corrected by wearing glasses with what shape lenses?
    • Convex
    • Concave
    • Emmetropic
    • Myopic
    • Hexagonal
  • The optic radiation projects from the ____________ to the ______________.
    • Optic nerve; optic chiasma
    • Optic chiasma; thalamus
    • Optic chiasma; optic nerve
    • Thalamus; visual cortex
    • Thalamus; optic nerve

Label all the structures of the eye on the following diagrams.

Text Box: [Grab your reader’s attention with a great quote from the document or use this space to emphasize a key point. To place this text box anywhere on the page, just drag it.]

Name the 2 muscles that constitute the iris, and describe their actions.

Draw a flow diagram in the box below showing the pathway of light from its source to the sensory receptors for the eye. List all structures that light passes through.

Explain the events and structures involved in the transduction of light in the retina.

What are cataracts?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

What is glaucoma?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Critical thinking:

George’s MRI scan shows a 3cm x 2cm glioblastoma pressing on his optic chiasm.
Describe the potential visual field deficit he might complain of.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Total blindness in the right eye would suggest damage to which structure along the visual pathway?

___________________________________________________________________________

Text Box: Workbook task4.2: Ear, hearing and equilibrium

Revision questions.

  1. The inner ear is composed of a bony labyrinth and a membranous labyrinth. Name the fluids contained in each.
  2. __________________________________________________________________
  3. __________________________________________________________________
  4. The organ for hearing is called the _________________________________________
  5. The depolarisation of the hair cells releases a ______________ that synapses with the dendritic endings of the _______________________________ nerve.
  6. How do we determine loudness and pitch of sound? A diagram may help explain your answer. Include the structure involved.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • Where is the auditory cortex located? 

________________________________________________________________________

  • Static equilibrium receptors are located where?
    ________________________________________________________________________
  • The hair cells in the inner ear have extensions called ________________________________________________________________________
  • What are Otoliths? Where are they found?

________________________________________________________________________

  • The hair cells in the crista ampullaris synapse with which specific nerve fibres?

________________________________________________________________________

  1. Movement of which circulating fluid causes mechanotransduction of the hair cells embedded in the cupula?

________________________________________________________________________

  1. Maintenance of equilibrium requires input from which 3 sets of receptors?
  2. _____________________________________________________________________
  3. _____________________________________________________________________
  4. _____________________________________________________________________
  5. What separates the external auditory canal from the middle ear?

_____________________________________________________________________

  1. What structure connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx?

_____________________________________________________________________

  1. Which structure contains the saccule and the utricle?

_____________________________________________________________________

  1. Which type of deafness can arise from fusion of the auditory ossicles?

_____________________________________________________________________

  1. Name the 3 auditory ossicles and where they are found. What is their functional role? How does their structure suit their function?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

  1. Give an overview of the differences in structure and function of the maculae and the crista ampullaris.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. The bony labyrinth contains the following structures:
  2. _______________________________________________________________
  3. _______________________________________________________________
  4. _______________________________________________________________
  5. The membranous labyrinth is located within the _______________ ______________.
  6. Tyler has been working at a nightclub as a barman for about 2 years. He recently noticed problems with his hearing.

a) What type of deafness do you think he may be experiencing? _________________
b) What structures are involved? __________________________________________

Label the following diagrams.

Label the structures involved in the conduction of sound.

Fill in the empty boxes.

Diagram

Description automatically generated

4.3: Taste and olfaction

Revision questions.

  1. Name the five basic taste modalities and give an example of each.
  2. __________________________________________________________________
  3. __________________________________________________________________
  4. __________________________________________________________________
  5. __________________________________________________________________
  6. __________________________________________________________________
  7. Where are the gustatory receptors located?

_____________________________________________________________________

  1. Where are the olfactory receptors located?

_____________________________________________________________________

  1. Briefly describe the process of olfactory transduction.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Which 3 cranial nerves carry taste sensation to the gustatory cortex?
  2. __________________________________________________________________
  3. __________________________________________________________________
  4. __________________________________________________________________
  5. A patient arrives in ED after a boxing match where she sustained a large laceration to the bridge of her nose. The clinician runs routine tests to discover she has lost her sense of smell and taste. A fracture is suspected. Which cranial bone is likely to have been injured? What brought you to this conclusion?
    [Hint: Which cranial nerve related to the sense of smell passes where?]

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • Taste buds are NOT found in
  • Fungiform papillae
  • Filiform papillae
  • Circumvallate papillae
  • Soft palate
  • Lining the buccal cavity

Label the following diagrams.

Text Box: Which Cranial Nerves are responsible for the transmission of taste information?
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