Jacksonian Democracy

First Reading “Jacksonian Democracy”

Under the Presidency of Andrew Jackson (1829-1837):

a. The American economy contracted and poverty increased, although voting rights were expanded.

b. The American economy grew and incomes rose; also, voting rights expanded.

c. The American economy worsened, and voting rights were removed from some classes of workers.

d. The American economy improved, but on the political front, President Jackson could not pass any significant bills because of Congressional opposition.

TRUE or FALSE? Jacksonian democracy increased the power of the presidency in relation to Congress.

TRUE or FALSE?  Jacksonian democracy increased political participation, but kept the slavery system intact.

Second Reading “Mexican-American War”

TRUE or FALSE? Between 1836 and 1845, the Republic of Texas was an independent republic – independent of the U.S., and independent of Mexico.

TRUE or FALSE?  A major goal of the U.S. government in precipitating the Mexican-American War was to obtain U.S. control of territory that stretched all the way to the Pacific Ocean.

Why did former President John Quincy Adams oppose U.S. entry into a war with Mexico?  Because:

                (a) it would lead to a large increase in the federal debt;

                (b) he was a pacifist;

                (c) it could lead to an expansion of slavery in any new territories acquired from Mexico;  

                (d) it would lead to too much territory to be able to be controlled by the US government. 

Which of these statements is the most accurate?

(a) Before the start of the Mexican-American War, California was a state within Mexico which the U.S. wanted to control;

(b) Before the start of the Mexican-American War, California was a state within Mexico which the U.S. had no interest in;

(c) Before the start of the Mexican-American War, the Mexicans agreed that it would not compete with the U.S. for control over California.

One military strategy that the American army used successfully in the Mexican-American war was:

                          (a) deploying Revolutionary War veterans on the front lines;

                          (b) deploying U.S. marines to cross over Mexican rivers;

                          (c) deploying flying artillery;

                          (d) deploying powerful, boulder-throwing catapults.

TRUE or FALSE?  As part of their military strategy to secure control of California, American forces captured or destroyed dozens of Mexico’s ships which were docked along the shore.

TRUE or FALSE?  Toward the end of the Mexican-American war, the U.S. armed forces seized Mexico City and occupied it.

ONE PARAGRAPH ESSAY: Please read the two sections (toward the end of the article on the Mexican-American War) titled “Results,” and “Impact of the war in the U.S.”  Then use this information to explain what you think about the Mexican-American war — was it justified?  [one long paragraph]. 

3rd Reading – “Slavery Economics”

According to the article, “Slavery Economics,” approximately how many African-American slaves (in total) were living in the U.S. in 1860 (just before the start of the Civil War)?              

  (a) 900,000;   (b) 1.9 million;   (c) 2.9 million;   (d) 3.9 million.

In 1860, in which two states did black slaves make up more than 50 per cent of the population? 

(a)Virginia and North Carolina                (b) Louisiana and Texas

(c) South Carolina and Mississippi           (d) Florida and South Carolina.

At the height of slavery, in the Old South, the price of a male slave was highest when the slave was what age? 

(a) 15 years old       (b) 25 years old      (c) 35 years old    (d) 45 years old.

4th Reading – Nullification Crisis

In the Nullification controversy of 1832, South Carolina                                                  

         (a) refused to impose tariffs (taxes) on imported goods, as required by federal law;

         (b) decided to impose tariffs (taxes) on imported goods, even though federal law did not allow this;

         (c) \provided surplus cotton for free to the Northern states, but not to its Southern neighboring states;

         (d) provided surplus cotton for free to its Southern neighboring states, but not to the northern states.

In the Nullification crisis,

 (a)  President Andrew Jackson supported South Carolina, but neighboring southern states refused to support South Carolina.

 (b) Neighboring southern states supported South Carolina against the federal government, but President Jackson opposed South Carolina.

 (c) Both President Jackson and neighboring southern states opposed South Carolina on constitutional grounds.

 (d) Both President Jackson and neighboring southern states supported South Carolina’s position.

5th Reading – The Kansas Nebraska Act

The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 championed by Senator Stephen Douglas, gave to the people of Kansas and Nebraska the right to decide (through a popular ballot) whether or not they wanted slavery to be legal in their state.  What was the effect of this Act? 

  • Both sides used violent raids and voter fraud to either oppose or support slavery in Kansas and Nebraska, and the slavery controversy only further divided the nation.
  • This Act ended the violence in Kansas and Nebraska, with both states voting to end slavery.
  • This Act ended the violence, with both states voting to allow slavery.

6th Reading – Emancipation Proclamation (1863)

The Emancipation Proclamation:

(a) freed all slaves in the U.S.;         

(b) freed all slaves in loyal states (states that were under Union control); 

(c) freed all slaves in the rebellious states (states not under Union control);

(d) freed all slaves in the western states.

7th Reading – The American Civil War – Facts, Events, and Information (Scroll down to “Civil War Articles” and read all the sections.

Approximately how many American soldiers — both sides combined — died in the Civil War? 

(a) Between 285,000 and 300,000.                      

(b) Between 485,000 and 500,000. 

(c) Between 785,000 and one million.

TRUE or FALSE?  At the beginning of the Civil War, both sides believed that the war would be concluded after a single major battle.

TRUE or FALSE? During the first two years of the war (1861 and 1862), the Northern and Southern armies had proven to be more or less evenly matched, as each won a number of major battles.

The two battles that turned the tide of the war in favor of the North in 1863 were:

(a) Chancellorsville and Gettysburg.                                 (b) Antietam and Gettysburg 

(c) Vicksburg and Gettysburg.                                         (d) Antietam and Vicksburg.

FILL IN THE BLANK: What is the name of the Union general whose armies succeeded in capturing Atlanta, and later led a Union army throughout the state of Georgia in a “March to the Sea,” which sealed the Union victory in the southern states?  ______________________________________.

Thinking back over the weeks since the course began, what do you find to be the most important lesson of American history between 1607 and 1865?  It may be helpful to focus on a particular event, personality, war, social movement, or political change.  [Several sentences].

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