Direct STR typing from fired and unfired bullet casings

From your own background, select a published article and define the following:

1- the methodology used in the article. 

2- The type of data.

3- The method of analysis 

4- ethics

For example:

Article title: Direct STR typing from fired and unfired bullet casings

  1. The methodology used in the article

Experimental research aimed at studying: the effect of firing bullets on DNA deposited on bullet casings; the effect of gun and ammunition types on short tandem repeat (STR) profile quality; and the feasibility of using direct PCR in real-world cases via typing of mock casework samples.

  • Type of data

Numerical, measurable, and testable data (STR profiles)

  • The method of analysis
  • Raw data were analyzed using GeneMapper1 ID v 3.2.1.
  • Relevant data were exported to the open-source statistical program R.
  • Four factors were investigated: the effect of DNA extraction on the amount of DNA recovered; the effect of firing on DNA loss; the effect of gun type and ammunition type; and the number of donor alleles and non-donor alleles observed.
  • All statistical comparisons were carried out using Bayesian credible intervals. Bayesian 95% credible intervals of the means and 95% credible intervals for effect sizes were calculated using “Bayesian Estimation Supersedes the T-test (BEST)”
  • Ethics

The research was approved by the Ethical Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University (approval no. 57-027-19-2).


Thanakiatkrai, P., & Rerkamnuaychoke, B. (2019). Direct STR typing from fired and unfired bullet casings. Forensic science international301, 182-189.

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