The term “the second machine age” refers to an era when

1. The term “the second machine age” refers to an era when ______________________.
Select one:
a. machines make human work entirely redundant
b. humans no longer require the use of heavy machinery
c. humans become entirely dependent on machines
d. automation allows for the substitution of many cognitive tasks previously performed by humans

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2. Brynjolfsson and McAfee argue that three important technological changes have reshaped work. Identify which three changes they refer to.
Select more than one:
a. Combinatorial
b. Exponential
c. Digital
d. Interdisciplinary
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3. Finbarr Livesey, in his book From Global to Local: The Making of Things and the End of Globalisation, identifies several important shifts that signify the slowing down of trade globalisation. Based on the notes in this unit, select which two of the following shifts Livesey refers to in his book.
Select more than one:
a. The ratio of global trade to global GDP has fallen since the 2008 financial crash.
b. FDI is below its pre-2008 financial crisis levels and its future growth is uncertain.
c. Manufacturing is becoming localised as the cost of labour decreases.
d. Global environmental campaigns have increased investment in local industries.
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4. McKinsey has identified several disruptive technologies that it predicts will have a profound effect on the way business is conducted. Match the technology with the correct description.
Intelligent machinery with the capability to perform cognitive tasks
Answer 1
The automation of tasks
Answer 2
Improved extraction of natural resources that are less environmentally damaging
Answer 3
Connected networks that monitor and collect data, which optimises production and processes
Answer 4
Improvements in the field of synthetic biology
Answer 5
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5. Research conducted by Frey & Osborne found that certain occupations are at higher risk of automation than others. Select which of the following occupations are at higher or lower risk of automation, according to their research.

Logistics
Answer 1
Management
Answer 2
Education
Answer 3
Office and administration
Answer 4
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6. According to Joshua Gans, which reactive management techniques best describes the following:
Enhance an existing product in areas that the disruptive technology fails to address.
Answer 1
Acquire the competition instead of opposing them or competing against them.
Answer 2
Invest in the new technology rather than trying to make improvements to the old one, so that
that the company gains some control over the evolution of the new technology.
Answer 3
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7. Clayton Christensen argues that disruptive technologies tend to develop in ways that meet new needs, which have the potential to create new demand. These changes happen so rapidly that the market leaders that do not innovate find they are too late to respond effectively as the disruptive technology dominates the market.

Select one:
True
False
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8. Complete the following sentence based on what was covered in the notes in this unit.
To adapt to the environmental resource constraints and challenges of the 21st century, business leaders will also need to consider adopting ________________ business models. Making these changes now will ensure that businesses are better prepared for a future where organisations are penalised for ______________ behaviour.

Select one:
a. capital intensive, opportunistic
b. agile, opportunistic
c. capital intensive, unsustainable
d. environmentally sustainable, unsustainable

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