During the Covid-19 lockdown, we were confined in our apartments and villas – or even rooms – for longer periods than ever before

Reading Question 1: (5 marks)

Identify one sentence from each paragraph below that does not belong in the overall main idea of the paragraph and state the main idea in your own words.               / 5                                                                             

  1. Experiments with octopuses show that they can tell the difference between some shapes but not others. Each of four shapes was presented to an octopus, along with a crab to attract it towards food. Next a mild electric shock was introduced to the vertical bar shape but not to the horizontal one. Electricity attracts octopuses. The octopus soon learned to avoid the electrified one. However, it never could learn the difference between “M” and upside-down “V” shapes when one was electrified and the other was not. This is because the octopus’s eye can only scan an object to measure its width and height, not its exact shape. The vertical and horizontal bars show up differently to an octopus, but the “M” and inverted “V” look the same.

Irrelevant Sentence: __________________________________________________________

Main idea: __________________________________________________________________

  1. Most companies start as entrepreneurial ventures using a simple structure, which is an

organizational design with low departmentalization, wide spans of control, authority centralized in a single person, and little formalization. The divisional structure is made up of separate business units or division. The simple structure is most widely used in smaller businesses and its strengths should be obvious. It’s fast, flexible, and inexpensive to maintain, and accountability is clear. However, it becomes increasingly inadequate as an organization grows, because its few policies or rules to guide operations and its high centralization result in information overload at the top.

Irrelevant Sentence: __________________________________________________________

Main idea: __________________________________________________________________

  1. Cappuccino coffee was inspired by Marco D’Aviano, a priest from the Capuchin monastic order, who was fighting against the Turks besieging Vienna in 1683. Following the retreat of the Turks, the Viennese made coffee from abandoned sacks of Turkish coffee. The first coffeehouse in Europe appeared in Venice in 1645. Finding it too strong for their taste, they mixed it with cream and honey. This made the color of the coffee turn brown, resembling the color of the Capuchins’ robes. Thus, the Viennese named it cappuccino in honor of Marco D’Aviano’s order. Since then, cappuccino has been drunk for its enjoyable, smooth taste.

Irrelevant Sentence: __________________________________________________________

Main idea: __________________________________________________________________

  1. Beginning the 8th century, Egypt, Iraq, Syria, and Muslim Spain produced vast amounts of glassware either by blowing liquid glass into molds or by cutting it from crystal. Muslims inherited the Roman glass industry in Syria and Egypt and improved it by developing their own glassmaking techniques. They also made many kinds of glass objects, including bottles, vases, and cups. Many amazing examples of ancient glass have been uncovered in excavations of Al-Fustat, or “Old Cairo,” in Egypt. Al-Fustat was built around 641 AD.

Irrelevant Sentence: __________________________________________________________

Main idea: __________________________________________________________________

  • I have learned a lot working as a messenger in New York City. First, I have learned to persevere when there are difficulties. I also find math very difficult, but I have a tutor now who has been a great help to me. So many times, I have wanted to quit, but I have tried to keep my sense of humor. I have had problems with drivers who almost run me over, constant rain for weeks at a time, unreadable addresses, and rude customers. I think the drivers in New York are the worst in any city I have seen. I have also learned that even the most routine job can be interesting.

Irrelevant Sentence: __________________________________________________________

Main idea: __________________________________________________________________

Reading Question 2: (10 marks)

Read the following text and answer the questions that follow:                                      / 10

Vaccination is a process where a person is given a weakened or inactive dose of a disease-causing organism. This stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies to this specific disease. Today, the development of new vaccines takes eight to twelve years, and any new vaccine has to be rigorously tested before it can be accepted as safe.

The Turks had discovered that if they inoculated their children with cowpox taken from the breasts of cattle, they would not develop smallpox. This kind of vaccination and other forms of variolation were introduced into England by Lady Montagu, a famous English letter writer and wife of the English ambassador at Istanbul between 1716 and 1718. She came across the Turkish methods of vaccination and became greatly interested in smallpox inoculation after consenting to have her son inoculated by the embassy surgeon, Charles Maitland. While in Istanbul, Lady Montagu sent a series of letters to England in which she described the process in detail. On her return to England she continued to spread the Turkish tradition of vaccination and had many of her relatives inoculated. She encountered fierce opposition to the introduction of inoculation, not only from the church authorities, who used to oppose any intervention, but also from many physicians. Through her tenacity though, inoculation became increasingly widespread and achieved great success.

The breakthrough came when a scientific description of the vaccination process was submitted to the Royal Society in 1724 by Dr. Emmanuel Timoni, who had been the Montagus’ family physician in Istanbul. This was further augmented by Cassem Aga, the ambassador of Tripoli, who provided a firsthand account of inoculation and its safety record in Tripoli, Tunis, and Algiers, which gave valuable reassurance about the long safety record of the practice in Muslim countries, and for which he was elected fellow of the Royal Society in 1729. Inoculation was then adopted both in England and in France, nearly half a century before Edward Jenner, to whom the discovery is attributed. It is currently believed that in 1796 Jenner “heard” that cowpox provided immunity to smallpox when he saw the case of James Phipps, an eight-year-old boy, who was infected with cowpox from a cut on the hand of a milkmaid, Sarah Nelmes. In 1967, Turkey commemorated the 250th anniversary of the first smallpox vaccination. The stamp shows a child being inoculated. In the background is an Islamic dome and in the fore- ground a surgeon’s scalpel.

The following statements are incorrect. Correct the sentences according to the information given in the text.

  1. The introduction of vaccination to England was fast-paced.

_____________________________________________________________________________.

  1. Smallpox inoculation was not a safe practice. 

_____________________________________________________________________________.

  1. Both Timoni and Aga submitted a scientific description of the vaccination process to the Royal Society.

_____________________________________________________________________________.

  1. Lady Montagu first spread the Turkish tradition of vaccination once she returned to England.

_____________________________________________________________________________.

  • Dr Edward Jenner invented the smallpox vaccination method.

_____________________________________________________________________________.

Grammar Question 1: (5 marks)

Rewrite the following sentences as instructed between brackets:

  1. Lady Montagu introduced the smallpox inoculation to Europe. (add a prepositional phrase)
  2. Children inoculated with cowpox taken from the breasts of cattle would not develop smallpox. (use first conditional)
  3. There’s a man lying down on the pavement over there. Do you think he hurt himself? (use a suitable modal verb)
  4. If he won’t resign, ___________________________________. (complete with a suitable modal verb)
  5. She claims her illness is entirely due to stress at work. This is baseless. (change to a subject and join both sentences)

Answers:

1. ___________________________________________________________

2. ___________________________________________________________

3. ___________________________________________________________

4. ___________________________________________________________

5. ___________________________________________________________

Grammar Question 2: (5 marks)

 Write novel, complete sentences as instructed in the table below:

Required structuresAnswers
going to with Yes/No question1.
going to with Wh-question2.
a subject checking question3.
a subject post-modified with a prepositional phrase4.
zero conditional5.

Vocabulary Question 1: (5 marks)

Rewrite the following sentences as instructed. Make any necessary changes:

1. Many customs are dying out for several reasons. (use a main verb synonym)

_______________________________________________________

2. The way the team played yesterday was terrible. (use the adverb form)

_______________________________________________________

3. Mass Media’s influence affects how many people choose their clothes. (use the adjective form)

_______________________________________________________

4. We can classify Literature into four main kinds. (use the noun form with the passive voice)

_____________________________________________________________

5. The institute supported his efforts in search for a solution. (use an antonym)

_____________________________________________________________

Writing Question 1: (5 marks)                                                                                      / 5

Write a contrasting sentence below for the given sentence by using fixed phrases. (You can also refer to page 31 in your course book and page 22 in your workbook)                                                                                                 

1. Some people like to stay alone at home.

   ____________________________________________________________.

2. Before the first day of school, some people eat out. 

_____________________________________________________________.

3. In some places in the world, it is customary to keep on living with your extended family.

______________________________________________________________.

4. In some countries, you are allowed to vote if you are 18 years old.

___________________________________________________________________.

5. In the olden days, people used horses for transportation.

   _________________________________________________________________.

Writing Question 2: (15 marks)                                                                                        / 15

During the Covid-19 lockdown, we were confined in our apartments and villas – or even rooms – for longer periods than ever before. Describe your room, apartment or villa citing at least three points that made you either love or hate it then. Make sure to describe not only the physical aspect, but also how you felt and how you coped.

Write a 3-paragraph descriptive essay of about 250 words (Introduction, Body and Conclusion). You must write your opinion in the conclusion

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