Mitosis and Meiosis Lab

Lab 8:  The Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis

Introduction:

One of the characteristic features of living organisms is their capacity to grow and reproduce. As the cells grow in size, the limited capacity to expand as the cells increase in size to accommodate the increasing contents necessitates the cell to divide. Cell division plays an important role in –

  • single celled prokaryotes, for e.g. amoeba that divided asexually by a simple process of binary fission.
  • growth and development of multicellular eukaryotic organisms. Eukaryotic organisms begin their life from a single celled zygote that divides and differentiates to assume the form and function of an adult. (see figure below).
  • the continuous growth and renewal of cells in multicellular eukaryotes.
Title: Cell Division - Embryonic Development - Description: The single celled zygote divides by divisions and develops into an individual.

Figure 1: The single celled zygote divides by repeated divisions and eventually develops into an individual.

 There are two types of cell division:

  1. Mitosis– is a type of cell division involved in the development of a single celled zygote into an adult organism, growth and repair of tissues and in asexual reproduction. In mitosis the parent cell divides into two daughter cells that are genetically identical to parent cell, i.e. the chromosome number is same to parent cell. The fidelity of the process ensures the heritable transmission of traits essential for maintaining the continuity of life.
  2. Meiosis – by which the germ cells divide to form gametes. Each parent cell produces four daughter cells in which the chromosome number is reduced to half. Meiosis involves genetic recombination by the process of crossing over. (opens in a new window)

Please watch the following supplemental videos.

Procedure:

Please proceed to the Analysis and Questions Section.

Analysis and Questions:

Part I: Mitosis Activity (Virtual)

To complete this activity, you’ll need to visit Cell’s Alive (opens in a new window)

On the right side of the screen, click on the link to “MITOSIS”. Read the text on this page and view the animation, you can slow down the video by clicking step by step through the phases.

List the stages of mitosis in order and write at least 1 fact per phase. (recommend a table)

Cellular activityStage of Mitosis/Cell Cycle
Chromatin condenses into chromosomes 
Chromosomes align in center of cell. 
Longest part of cell cycle 
Kinetochores separate 
Cell is cleaved into two new daughter cells 
Daughter chromosomes arrive at the poles 

Part II – Meiosis Tutorial (Virtual)

You will need to explore the website and view the virtual cell undergoing meiosis at The Biology Project: Meiosis (opens in a new window)

See the Contents: You will browse through each topic. 

Part A: Reproduction

  • Give an example of asexual reproduction.
  • What is a clone?
  • Name the two types of gametes produced by meiosis.  

To proceed to Part B material in the website, please click the “Next” button

Part B: Chromosomes in a Diploid Cell

  1. What is the diploid chromosome number for humans?
  2. Egg and sperm cells are [haploid / diploid]

To proceed to Part C material in the website, please click the “Next” button.

Part C: Meiosis 1 and Meiosis 2

Name the stage of meiosis 1 where each of the following occurs:

Cellular ActivityStage
Homologous chromosomes pair and form synapses:  
Bivalents align at metaphase plate:  
Two complete daughter cells form: 
Nuclear membrane disappears: 
Nuclear membrane reforms: 

View the meiosis 1 and 2 animation

18. At the end of meiosis 2, each cell contains how many chromosomes?

To proceed to Part D material in the website, please click the “Next” button Part D: A Review of Meiosis

 19. Name 2 errors that can occur during meiosis.

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