Part 1 – Igneous Rocks

Materials:

  • Geology.com (https://geology.com/rocks/) as a reference.  
  • Rock pictures available in in the Google folder “Pictures for Rocks Lab”

Part 1 – Igneous Rocks

1. The texture of igneous rock is typically described as phaneritic, aphanitic, glassy, or vesicular.  Briefly describe what each of these textures means, and how it relates to the rate of cooling to form the rock.

Texture

Description

Rate of Cooling

Phaneritic

Aphanitic

Glassy

Vesicular

2.  Using the website and your lecture notes, state the texture for each of the following rocks.

Rock

Texture

Gabbro

Rhyolite

Obsidian

Andesite

Pumice

Granite

Basalt

Diorite

3. The composition of igneous rock is typically described as felsic, intermediate, mafic, or ultramafic.  The composition of the igneous rock is determined by the minerals that are in the magma or lava that forms the rock.  State the type of color that is found in igneous rocks of each type of composition.   (Choose from light, dark, dark greenish, and in between light and dark.

Composition

Color

Felsic

Intermediate

Mafic

Ultramafic

4.  Using the website and your notes, state the composition (felsic, intermediate, mafic, ultramafic) for each of the following rocks.

Rock

Composition

Gabbro

Rhyolite

Obsidian

Andesite

Pumice

Granite

Basalt

Diorite

5.  Complete the following table to identify the pictures of igneous rocks.

Texture: phaneritic, aphanitic,  glassy, or vesicular

Composition: felsic, intermediate, mafic, or ultramafic

Igneous Rock Name: Basalt, granite, etc.

Number

Texture

Composition

Igneous Rock Name

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Part 2 – Sedimentary Rocks

1. Sedimentary rocks are classified by the materials that most directly make up the rock.  Briefly describe the three basic types of composition for sedimentary rocks.  

Composition

Description

Clastic 

Chemical

Organic 

2. Using the website and your lecture notes, state the composition of each of the following types of rocks.

Rock 

Composition

Sandstone 

Coquina

Shale 

Bituminous coal 

Limestone

Conglomerate

3. Carbonate minerals, such as calcite (CaCO3) will undergo a chemical reaction with HCl to create CO2, which is a gas at room temperature.  Therefore, when HCl is applied to these minerals, they will bubble or fizz.  Considering which carbonates we have discussed, and which sedimentary rocks are made of these minerals, complete the chart below with which rocks you would expect to produce bubbles when you apply HCl.

Rock

Produce bubbling when HCl is applied?

Sandstone 

Coquina

Shale 

Bituminous coal 

Limestone

Conglomerate

4.  Complete the following table to identify the pictures of sedimentary rocks.

Composition: clastic, chemical, or organic

Mineral Composition (for chemical sedimentary rocks only!): state dominante mineral present

Reaction with HCl: if reaction with HCl is expected, based on chemical composition

Sedimentary Rock Name: sandstone, bituminous coal, etc.

Number

Composition

Mineral Composition

Reaction with HCl

Sedimentary Rock  Name

9

10

12

13

14

16

Part 3 – Metamorphic Rocks

1. Describe the difference between a foliated and nonfoliated metamorphic rock.

Term

Description

Foliated

Nonfoliated

2. Using the website and your lecture notes, identify each of the following rocks as foliated or nonfoliated.

Metamorphic Rock

Foliated or Nonfoliated

Marble

Anthracite Coal

Schist

Amphibolite

Slate

Quartzite

Gneiss

3. Metamorphic rocks are formed when a previously existing rock undergoes metamorphism (heat and pressure).  The parent rock is this previously existing rock.  For each of the metamorphic rocks in the table, state the parent rock(s).

Rock

Parent Rock(s)

Marble

Anthracite Coal

Schist

Amphibolite

Slate

Quartzite

Gneiss

4. Recall that carbonate minerals will undergo a chemical reaction with HCl to create CO2, which is a gas at room temperature.  Therefore, when HCl is applied to these minerals, they will bubble or fizz.  Considering the parent rocks of the metamorphic rocks listed below, state which you would expect to produce a reaction with HCl. 

Rock

Reaction with HCl?

Marble

Anthracite Coal

Schist

Amphibolite

Slate

Quartzite

Gneiss

5. Complete the following table to identify the pictures of the sedimentary rocks.

Foliated or nonfoliated: showing layer of minerals or not

Reaction with HCl: is reaction with HCl is expected

Parent Rock: non-metamorphic rock that is turned into metamorphic rock

Metamorphic Rock Name: gneiss, marble, etc.

Number

Foliated or Nonfoliated?

Reaction with HCl

Parent Rock(s)

Metamorphic Rock Name

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

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