Microbiology Discussion

Microbiology Discussion 1

While Gram staining and visualization under a light microscope can be powerful tools to guide a clinical microbiologist in the identification of bacteria, this process rarely, if ever, is sufficient for making a definitive diagnosis of a disease caused by bacteria. On the other hand, electron microscopy is useful for not only assisting virologists in identifying disease-causing viral agents, but may perhaps provide definitive identification of these agents. Hazelton and Gelderblom (2003)1 have made the argument that electron microscopy should be the diagnostic tool of choice in many viral outbreaks because of the rapidity and fidelity of the result.

Do you agree with the statement above or not or not and why? Explain in detail and use the evidence to support your thought.

Discuss the importance of comparing multiple images of the same virus, perhaps from different patients believed to be infected with the same agent.

1Hazelton PR, Gelderblom HR. Electron microscopy for rapid diagnosis of emerging infectious agents.Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 2003 Mar [date cited]. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no3/02-0327.htm

Reply back to classmates: Response has to be a paragraph.

1. Yes, i do agree with Hazelton and gelderblom that the electron microscopy should be the diagnostic tool of choice. I agree with this because after reading some articles i have found that the electron microscopy is fast and realiable. When you are trying to identify a disease or viral outbreak, you are going to need something that will give you fast results that you can trust. I also think when using the electron microscopy that you should use another tool to back your findings.

2. I agree with the statement, electron microscopy has two advantages over enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and nucleic acid amplification tests. After a simple and fast negative stain preparation, the undirected, “open view” of electron microscopy allows rapid morphologic identification and differential diagnosis of different agents contained in the specimen. Details for efficient sample collection, preparation, and particle enrichment are given. Applications of diagnostic electron microscopy in clinically or epidemiologically critical situations as well as in bioterrorist events are discussed. Electron microscopy can be applied to many body samples and can also hasten routine cell culture diagnosis. To exploit the potential of diagnostic electron microscopy fully, it should be quality controlled, applied as a frontline method, and be coordinated and run in parallel with other diagnostic techniques. This just show that Gram staining is the first step identify a bacteria, when electron microscopy will make a more result to understand where and how the bacteria was produce. I feel that electron microscopy is just a more advance way to diagnosis the reasoning on how a bacteria was caused.

3. I agree with the statement above that the electron microscope should be used because of the more information and better results than the light microscope. The argument that that Hazelton andGelderblom had made over this was a great one and I give them 2 thumbs up with it. Both electron and light microscopes are technical devices which are used for visualizing structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye, and both types have relevant areas of applications in biology and the materials sciences. And this is pretty much it. The method of visualizing the structures is very different. Electron Microscopes use electrons and not photons (light rays) for visualization. The first electron microscope was constructed in 1931, compared to optical microscopes they are a very recent invention. There are two different types of electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and there are two most common types of light microscopes which are compound microscopes and stereo microscopes.

Comparing multiple images of the same virus helps the scientist to better understand the disease and different ways it can look. It allows them to see the changes that each virus makes so that they may can come up with better solutions as to why it happens and how it could maybe cured.

Microbiology Discussion 2

Microbiologists believe that Bacterial Biofilms are responsible for several chronic diseases that are difficult to treat and they are resistance to antibiotic.

Research about Bioflim and describe the characteristics of Bioflim in your own words. Identify the website that you do research on.

After considering all of your research, explain the impact of Bioflim in healthcare environments.

Why does bacterial Biofilm increase the resistance to antibiotics?

Reply back to classmates: Response has to be a paragraph.

1. Biofilm are microorganism that form from community characterized cells that are attached to an non-living chemical or living surface and embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced.Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that remain adherent to solid surfaces in an aqueous environment. These microbes produce a network of extracellular carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids known as extracellular polymeric matrix which acts as a protective shield for the biofilm-associated bacteria. A biofilm community creates an environment suitable for the exchange of genetic material between microbes within the biofilm architectural structure and conjugation (plasmid transfer) occurs at higher rates within biofilms than in free-floating (planktonic) species. The increased level of conjugation occurring in biofilms may be the result of protection of the microbes from shear forces brought on by fluid flow in the extracellular environment. Close cell-to-cell contact created by biofilms can enhance conjugation to efficiently spread bacterial resistance to antimicrobials via plasmid exchange.

Bacteria that attach to a surface and grow as a biofilm are protected from antibiotic killing. Reduced antibiotic susceptibility contributes to the persistence of biofilm infections such as those associated with implanted devices. The protective mechanisms at work in biofilms appear to be distinct from those that are responsible for conventional antibiotic resistance. In biofilms, poor antibiotic penetration, nutrient limitation, slow growth, adaptive stress responses, and formation of persister cells are hypothesized to constitute a multi-layered defense. The genetic and biochemical details of these biofilm defenses are only now beginning to emerge. Each gene and gene product contributing to this resistance may be a target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. Disabling biofilm resistance may enhance the ability of existing antibiotics to clear infections involving biofilms that are refractory to current treatments.

2.A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other on a surface. These cells are frequently embedded within an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Biofilm extracellular polymeric substance, which is also referred to as slime is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. Biofilm forms when bacteria adhere to surfaces in moist environments by excreting a slimy, glue-like substance. Sites for biofilm formation include all kinds of surfaces: natural materials above and below ground, metals, plastics, medical implant material even plant and body tissue. Wherever you find a combination of moisture, nutrients and a surface, you are likely to find biofilm. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well as resisting phagocytosis and other components of the body’s defence system. Biofilms cost the U.S. literally billions of dollars every year in energy losses, equipment damage, product contamination and medical infections. But biofilms also offer huge potential for bioremediating hazardous waste sites, biofiltering municipal and industrial water and wastewater, and forming biobarriers to protect soil and groundwater from contamination. The complexity of biofilm activity and behavior requires research contributions from many disciplines such as biochemistry, engineering, mathematics and microbiology.

http://www.biofilm.montana.edu/biofilm-basics-section-1.html

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20149602

3. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well as resisting phagocytosis and other components of the body’s defencesystem.Bacterial biofilms are responsible for several chronic diseases that are difficult to treat. Examples are: cystic fibrosis, endocarditis, cystitis, and infections caused by indwelling medical devices. Biofilm bacteria show much greater resistance to antibiotics than their free-living counterparts and our interest is to investigate the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon. One potential reason for this increased resistance is the penetration barrier that biofilms may present to antimicrobials.

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