What does bactericidal mean?Bacteriostatic? Virucidal? Fungistatic?

Week10ReviewSheet I

Exercise1-Disinfectants

1.   Whatdoesbactericidalmean?Bacteriostatic?Virucidal?Fungistatic?

2.   Whyarecontrolculturesnecessaryinevaluatingdisinfectants?

3.   Whatfactorscaninfluencetheactivityofadisinfectant?

4.   Whydomicroorganismsdifferintheirresponsetodisinfectants?

5.   Whatmicroorganismsaremostsusceptibleto disinfectants?

EXERCISE2-AntimicrobialAgentSusceptibilityTestingand Resistance

1.   Whatismeantbyantimicrobialresistance?Susceptibility?

2.   Whyarepureculturesusedforantimicrobialsusceptibilitytesting?

3.   Woulditbeacceptabletouseamixedcultureforthistest?Why?

4.   Listthreefactorsthatcaninfluencetheaccuracyofthetest.

5.   Whenperformingabrothdilutiontest,whyis itnecessaryto includea growthcontroltube?

Asterilitycontroltube?

EXERCISE3-TheEnterobacteriaceae(EntericBacilli)

1.   Whatdoestheterm IMViCmean?

2.   Whyis theIMViCusefulinidentifyingEnterobacteriaceae?Arefurtherbiochemicaltests necessaryforcompleteidentification?

3.   WhatdiagnostictestdifferentiatesProteusandProvidenciaspeciesfrom other

Enterobacteriaceae?

4.   HowisE.colidistinguishedfrom P. vulgarisonMacConkeyagar?OnaTSIslant?

5.   Whyisitimportanttodifferentiateglucosenonfermentersfrom Enterobacteriaceae?

EXERCISE4–Streptococci,Pneumococci,and Enterococci

1.   Differentiatethemicroscopicmorphologyofstreptococciandpneumococciasseenby

Gramstain.

2.   Whattypeof hemolysisis producedbyS. pneumoniae?

3.   HowisS.pneumoniaedistinguishedfrom otherstreptococciwiththesamehemolytic properties?

4.   Describethehemolysisproducedbyalpha-hemolytic,beta-hemolytic,andnonhemolytic streptococci.

5.   Whattypeofhemolysisis displayedbythegroupablestreptococcithataremostpathogenic forhumanbeings?

EXERCISE5-UrineCultureTechniques

1.   Whatis bacteriuria?Whenis itsignificant?

2.   Howdomicroorganismsentertheurinarytract?

3.   Whyisasepticurinecollectionimportantwhenculturesareordered?

4.   Listfivebacteriathatcancauseurinarytractinfection.

5.   Ifyoucounted20 coloniesfrom a0.01-mlinoculumofa1:10dilutionofurine,howmany organismspermilliliterof specimenwouldyoureport?Isthisnumbersignificant?

Week10ReviewSheet II

EXERCISE1-SerodiagnosisofInfectiousDisease

1.   Defineserumtiter.

2.   Whatareacuteandconvalescentsera?Whymustbothbetestedtomakeaserological diagnosisof infectiousdisease?

3.   Whatis thedifferencebetweenanagglutinationtestanda precipitationtest?

4.   Ina pairedserumsample,whattestresultsindicaterecentinfection?

5.   Whatis ahumoralantibody?

EXERCISE2-CulturingMicroorganismsfromtheEnvironment

1.   Whydomicrobiologistswearlaboratorycoats?Didyouconfirmthatthisisnecessary?

2.   Whyisitnecessarytowearclean,protectiveclothingwhencaringforapatient?

3.   Whyshouldhairbekeptcleanandoutofthewaywhencaringforpatients?

4.   Howcanthenumberofmicroorganismsintheenvironmentbecontrolled?

5.   Whenandwhyis handwashingimportantinpatientcare?

6.   Howcanthosewhocareforpatientsavoidspreadingmicroorganismsamongthem?

EXERCISE3-Staphylococci

1.   Differentiatethemicroscopicmorphologyofstaphylococciandstreptococciasseenby

Gramstain.

2.   Whatarethetwotypesofstaphylococcalcoagulase?

3.   Whatis proteinA?Describeonemethodofdetectingit.

4.   Whatpropertiesof S.aureusdistinguishitfrom S.epidermidisandS.saprophyticus?

5.   Whyarestaphylococcalinfectionsfrequentamonghospitalpatients?

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