Compare and contrast the self-cultivation philosophies in Buddhism and Yoga, especially the Buddha’s Eightfold Path and Patañjali’s Eight Limb Program (making clear the similarities and differences). Then explain what contemporary….
Taxes on energy in Saudi Arabia
Internal assessment in economics enables students to demonstrate the application of their knowledge and
understanding of economic theory in relation to real-world situations.
Both SL and HL economics students produce a portfolio of three commentaries based on articles from
published news media. Each article must be based on a different unit of the syllabus (excluding Unit 1:
Introduction to economics): Unit 2: Microeconomics, Unit 3: Macroeconomics and Unit 4: The global
The nature of articles
The choice of an appropriate article is the most crucial aspect of writing a successful commentary. The article
used does not have to be purely economic, as the application of economic theories and concepts can be
observed in many areas. Articles without any obvious economics are sometimes the most effective, allowing
students to introduce economic analysis where it is not immediately apparent. Articles that include
substantial economic analysis, such as in The Economist, while allowable as a source, may leave little
opportunity for further analysis.
Articles must be chosen from the news media: newspapers, magazines or the internet. Students need to look
for articles relating to current events, and these must be published no earlier than one year before the writing
of the commentary. The World Wide Web is a good source of articles. However, news media websites are the
only appropriate sources. The use of blogs is not allowed for internal assessment unless these are associated
with recognized news organizations. Students must take care to record correctly the actual date the article
was published, not just when it was posted on the internet. Graphic sources (for example, pictures, cartoons
and advertisements) are not to be used as source articles: these do not qualify as articles for the purpose of
this internal assessment. Students must take care not to choose articles where there is little room for their
own analysis and evaluation.
Length of articles
Shorter articles are often a good choice as they tend to be focused on just one or two economic
theories/concepts. A rough guide is approximately one full side of A4/letter-size paper (in font 10–12 with
normal line spacing) and no longer than two sides of A4/letter-size paper. It is important to note that
moderators (external examiners) will not read beyond two sides of text. Articles that are too short will not
usually provide enough interesting issues for students to analyse.
If students wish to use a long article, they must include the original article in its entirety, with the selected
part(s) highlighted. This helps students to stay focused. Students must remember that the teacher and
moderator will only read the highlighted section(s) and it is crucial, therefore, to highlight all the relevant
sections in the commentary.
Individual work on the articles and commentaries
Students must select their own articles to analyse. The teacher must not give the articles to the class or even
a single extract to a group of students. It can happen that students select the same articles by chance. This is
acceptable, provided the teacher is confident that each of the students involved came up with the article
independently. However, the teacher may require students to find alternative articles. The production of the
commentary must also be each student’s individual work and must not be prepared collaboratively with any
other members of the class. Commentaries must not be based on any articles used for class activities.
Each of the three commentaries must use a different key concept as a lens through which to analyse the
published extracts. Students will risk losing 3 marks in criterion D if they use the same key concept in two
commentaries and up to 6 marks if the same key concept is used in three commentaries.
Each commentary must:
● Explain the links between the article, a key concept and economic theory taken from the unit of the
syllabus on which the article is based.
● Demonstrate economic insights into the implications of the article (that is, it should provide evidence
of the student’s ability to discuss current events from the point of view of an economist).
On each commentary cover sheet students must record:
● The title of the article
● The source of the article (including date of access to the site if from the internet). Must include URL.
● The date the article was published
● The date the commentary was written
● The word count of the commentary
● The section of the syllabus to which the article relates
● The key concept being used
Each commentary in the portfolio is assessed individually against the internal assessment criteria. Each
student’s work is initially assessed before a sample of the work is then moderated by the IB.
If students do not adhere to the following requirements, they can lose marks under criterion F: Rubric
Each article must be based on a different unit of the syllabus
Students must use a different source for each commentary
- Contemporary articles
Students need to look for articles relating to current events, and these must be published no earlier
than one year before the writing of the commentary.
Students must produce a portfolio of three commentaries. Each commentary must not exceed 800 words as
moderators will note read beyond 800 words. The following are not included in the word count:
● Labels – of five words or fewer
● Headings on diagrams – of 10 words or fewer
● Tables of statistical data
● Equations, formulae and calculations
● Citations (which, if used, must be in the body of the commentary)
● References (which, if used, must be in the footnotes/endnotes)
Footnotes/endnotes may be used for reference only. Definitions of economic terms and quotations, if used, must
be in the body of the work and are included in the word count