Define Pathogen

  • Define Pathogen 
  • Define Infectious disease 
  • Define Infection
  • Define Primary Infection 
  • Define Secondary Infection 
  • Define Opportunistic Infection 
  • Define Accidental Infection
  • Define Pathogenicity 
  • Define Virulence 
  • Define Virulence Factors 
  • Define Lethal dose 
  • Outline the 4 steps a pathogen must complete to cause an infectious disease 
  • What is the difference between direct and indirect transmission? Provide examples 
  • What is a common vehicle transmission? Provide examples 
  • What is the criteria for Airborne transmission? Provide examples 
  • What are 3 criteria about skin that makes it an effective barrier against microbes? 
  • What are 3 criteria about mucous membranes that makes it an effective barrier against microbes? 
  • List one example of how a pathogen might penetrate a skin or mucous membrane barrier
  • Define Exotoxin and list at least 4 features they have 
  • Define Endotoxin and list at least 4 features they have 
  • List an example of a waterborne transmission disease 
  • List an example of a airborne transmission disease 
  • List an example of a contact transmission disease 
  • List an example of a vector transmission disease 
  • Influenza virus has an envelope that contains 2 types of protein spikes. Name and describe them 
  • Why are spike antigens good at evolving? 
  • Name 3 characteristics about latent and slow (persistent) Viral Infections 
  • How are viruses able to bring about cancer cell division? 
  • Describe the difference between Viruses and Retroviruses in regards to cancer development
  • What is a vaccination?
  • Define Attenuated Vaccines
  • Define Inactivated Vaccines
  • Define Subunit Vaccines
  • Define DNA Vaccines
  • Define Cutaneous Mycoses and its effect in humans 

THE CONTROL OF MICROORGANISMS  

  • Define Sterilization  
  • Define Bactericidal 
  • Define Bacteriostatic 
  • Describe sterilization by heat 
  • Describe sterilization by irradiation 
  • Describe sterilization by filtration 
  • What is disinfection? 
  • List and describe 3 types of disinfectants 
  • Describe the Kinetics of Cell death 
  • Draw and describe the kinetics of cell death for any microorganisms. 

ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS  

  • Define Antibiotic 
  • What is a key component of antibiotics? 
  • Define Infection
  • Name 5 antibiotics and the diseases they are typically used for 
  • Name and describe 6 properties that antibiotics should have 
  • What are 4 ways that antibiotics work?
  • Describe and give an example of disruption of cell membranes as it relates to antibiotics 
  • Describe and give an example of inhibition of protein synthesis as it relates to antibiotics 
  • Describe and give an example of inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis  as it relates to antibiotics 
  • Summarize in 5 sentences resistance to antibiotics
  • Provide 5 examples and describe 5 different ways bacteria can be resistant to antibiotics
  • Summarize in 5 sentences how bacteria resistance arises 
  • Describe the pros and cons between broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum antibiotics in 3 sentences
  • Define an Antiviral
  • Why are antiviral drugs not as common as antibacterial drugs? 
  • List and provide a example of the 4 ways antivirals work 
  • Describe how Antifungals work
  • List and describe 5 examples of Antifungal agents 
  • Why is it hard to target Antiprotozoal Agents?
  • List and describe examples of Antiprotozoal Agents (At least 3) 
  • Give a 3 sentence summary on the future of Antimicrobials (in your own words)