Fascism and communism Essay.
The term fascism refers to a modern political thought that seeks to rejuvenate the economic, cultural and social status of a nation by basing the country on a sensitive sense of ethnic identity and national belonging. Fascism is opposed to certain liberal ideas such as individual rights and freedom; it calls for the destruction of legislatures, elections among other democratic elements.
Despite the fact that fascism some goals which can be considered to be idealistic, attempts to come up with fascists societies have in most cases resulted into persecutions and wars which have claimed millions of lives.
Thus it is in most cases associated with strongly with racism, violence, totalitarianism and the right wing of fanaticism.
On the other hand communism is a universal society which has been able to overcome all classes and their distinctions; all the relations and systems of exploitation have been abolished; all social institutions which are oppressive and are used to enhance inequality such as men domination over women and racial discrimination are all done away with (Brown, Para 3)
Fascism was founded by veterans of world war one led by Benito Juarez Mussolini who had been fed up by decisions being made by the government of Italy and the treaty which expressly excluded the land gains made by Italy.
This form of government essentially is a form of dictatorship which results in pride of the nation commonly referred to as nationalism. Fascism is not totalitarian rule despite the fact that the fascist from Italy described it in that manner, by comparing it to Russia which was a communist state and Nazi in Germany. Fascism in Italy was a form of government which was not as cruel and strict as communism in Russia.
Fascism helps in the development of extreme advances in agricultural practices, industrialization, national security and population growth. It is anti communism or socialism, pro elitism and pro productivism. In this form of government decisions are made promptly as solutions are simplified and at the same time problems are solved properly and swiftly. Many governments borrowed the fascism thoughts from Mussolini, who is referred as the father of fascism by all the fascists (Brown, Para 5).
Fascism was developed because of the intellectual revolution and social changes that happened in the western countries in the twentieth century. It was an original and a modern thought that pressed for change and a new approach of governing among Europeans young people who refused to follow the middle rank values of their parents. Fascism as an ideology represents nationalism synthesis which simply implies that one is highly devoted to his own country.
It also calls for the rejection of liberalism, Marxism, democracy and materialism opinions also held by the socialists. Fascism is pro political rule in its absolute form through political leaders; it is opposed to the idea of important decisions being made by common people as it is the case in ideal democratic governance. The central government of the state has the responsibility of holding high the fascist values and also making of vital decisions for the entire nation.
Fascism attempts to bring about new civilization, which is based on the entire community. In this case the, all the classes and sectors of people within the community will be in a position to look for their niche. The whole nation is thus strengthened and revitalized. Each person in the community will in turn be more less a cell as far as the community organism is concerned. The fascism mode of governance also poses a revolution which can be compared to the spiritual revolution (Brown, Para 8)
In maintaining the unity of a country, fascism applies two instruments, that is, totalitarianism and corporatism. In a state that is corporative, its social, economical and political powers are in the hands corporations, the group of these corporations comprises of both the employees and the employers. The group of corporations in this case is mandated with the task of settling social classes’ differences and also planning the national economy. In a state that is totalitarian, the central government has absolute control and it has the duty of intervening at any point and every aspect of the life of an individual (Brown, Para 10)
Communism form of government on the other hand results into a state that operates under a single party and is based on the Marxism Leninism or its derivatives. Although, the states under communism can have many political parties, only the communist party is under the constitution guaranteed to play a central role in the communist government.
This makes the state’s institutions to be highly intertwined with the communist party. In most cases the communist states adopts the economic policies that are centrally planned, these states are thus related to economic development in both scholarship and popular thought. Legitimacy in communist states is mainly maintained through claims of promoting national long tern interests. The communist parties attempt to justify their political and monopoly powers by claiming to follow the objectives of the historical statutes.
They therefore, consider political dissent and opposition to be treasonous and counter productive. The minor parties in communist states have to follow the communist party. Such parties are only allowed to criticize the future policies which have been proposed, but such criticism should not in any way jeopardize the political system as it is under the communist state.
The states under communism are commonly criticized due to their totalitarian and dictatorship of one party in the control of the society and the national economy. It results into a state where the civil liberties of the citizens are repressed, its economic policies mainly emphasize on heavy industrialization to the detriment of those oriented to the production of consumer goods which creates an acute shortage of essential products and in most cases results into a national famine. The communist form of government uses propaganda and militarism in its attempt to cover up its evils.
Communist societies experience very high fixed costs with minimal uncertainty. The countries under communism can only have their economies growing under the conditions of stable environments when they are likely to experience reduced marginal cost. They have a lot of difficulties in adjusting in the event of a swift change in the environment since they are quite rigid. The communist states, the economic policies are centrally planned and commanded.
The fascism form of government results on the good of the entire nation which is clearly not the case for communism. Nationalism is not enhanced under communism and the government represses the civil liberties of its citizens, the communist state also uses militarism and propaganda to hide the evils it has created, this is not the case under the fascism where the nationalism takes center stage and the citizens have a strong sense of belonging.
Fascism is not as cruel and strict as compared to communism which uses military dictatorship and suppresses all other political parties in the state thus denying their followers any tangible contribution in their country which implies that nationalism is not enhanced at all. Fascism form of governance is thus much better compared to communism.