Assignment 2 Alcohol and Energy Drinks
Due Date and Submission Format • The assignment contributes 30% to your final grade in the unit • Your You must submit a hardcopy to the submission box on the 10th Floor of the ATC. o You must submit an electronic copy through Blackboard iLearn, by 11:55pm (Melbourne time) on the due date. The electronic submission must be a single document in Word, RTF, or PDF format. o Submissions must include a cover page with a plagiarism declaration. A template can be downloaded from Blackboard. • Your assignment must be a maximum of 2,200 words in length o Word count does NOT include cover page, reference list, and numbers in tables, but it does include any in-text citations. o Penalties may be applied for exceeding the word limit. Aims and Learning Objectives for this Assignment This is the second of two written assignments for this unit. This assignment is designed to bring together knowledge and skills developed in the first assignment and tutorial classes. In this second assignment you will write an APA style lab report describing the research study we conducted. Lab reports are modelled on APA style journal articles, thus this assignment is designed help you develop skills in reading and producing one of the standard document formats used by professional and academic psychologists. Limits of around 2,000-3,000 words are typical of “short” published research articles in psychology journals, so this assignment will give you direct experience with one of the main formats in which psychology research is published.
To gain maximum marks on this assignment you will need to
• Find relevant research articles for your own investigations • Closely read and critically evaluate peer-reviewed journal articles • Develop hypotheses based on a well-reasoned logical argument • Present data in APA-format tables • Interpret data with respect to your hypotheses and literature review • Use APA format citations and references • Write clearly, accurately and succinctly in APA style
Background The study we are conducting for this assignment investigates the relationship between drink- type (alcohol mixed with energy drink/any other alcoholic drink), number of alcoholic drinks consumed per drinking occasion, risk-taking personality (high/low propensity) and gender. The in preparing your review for Assignment 1 you would have read several articles indicating that the evidence for energy drinks increasing alcohol consumption is mixed and that some authors believe that other factors might be involved in levels of alcohol consumption. The two we will consider are gender and risk-taking propensity. Many researchers consider people’s willingness to take risks as having a basis in personality, you will find some articles mention “risk-taking personality.”
The first four tutorials covered some key skills in reading research articles, and APA style, citations, references, and tables. In Assignment 1, you should have gained an understanding of the key variables and the relationships between them as found in previous research and practiced writing in APA style with correct citation and referencing. OLT 4(+) also has an activity to give you practice constructing APA formatted tables and interpreting data.
In this assignment, you will formulate your own hypotheses about risk taking propensity, gender, and drink-type and the relationship these variables have with number of alcoholic drinks consumed per occasion. These hypotheses must be based on the research questions below. Your hypotheses should be based on your reading of journal articles from Assignment 1 and at least FOUR additional journal articles you must find yourself. Introduction – Research Questions Studies are usually motivated by research questions. Research questions are fairly general questions about an area of interest. Research questions are then turned into hypotheses, that is, specific predictions about variables measured in your study.
• Research Question 1 – What is the relationship between drink type and alcohol consumption? • Research Question 2 – Is gender related to levels of alcohol consumption? • Research Question 3 – Does risk-taking propensity affect consumption of each type of alcoholic drink? • Research Question 4 – Can risk-taking propensity (personality) explain some of the discrepancies in past research about the relationship between drink type and consumption levels?
Note that there need not be one hypothesis per research question. Depending on how you interpret the literature and build your argument you might combine multiple research questions into a single hypothesis or generate two hypotheses from a single research question.
Our study used a survey or quasi-experimental design. Many variables were measured, but we will only look at some of them: gender, risk-taking propensity, drink type, and number of drinks consumed.
Requirements and Marking Guide This describes sections that should be included in your lab report (refer to Findlay for further details and a discussion of lab report sections) and what content should go in them. The word limit is 2,200 words. The word count includes all sections except the title page, references, and numbers in tables. Your report must be in APA style and include the following sections.
Title Page – Mandatory for work to be graded • The report must include a cover page with plagiarism declaration. • Title – give your report a clear, descriptive title that informs the reader as to what your article is about. Abstract – 5% • A succinct summary of all the important features and findings of the study, not exceeding 180 words Introduction – 20% • In this section you will develop an argument around the research questions for this study leading logically to some specific hypotheses. • This section must introduce the study and provide a brief background literature drawing on your readings from Assignment 1, plus at least FOUR additional articles or book chapters which provide a basis for your argument. • You are encouraged to build this review around the review you wrote for assignment 1, incorporating the feedback you received. • As a guide, this section should be around 800 words. Method – 5% • An accurate and concise description of: participants, materials, design, and procedure. Note that it is possible to combine some of these sections. • Some information about the Method is included in this document. • As a guide, this section should be around 300 words. Make this section brief – include only essential details. Results – 25% • This section should summarise the parts of our data relevant to your hypotheses. • You must show means of the conditions you need to compare for your hypotheses in APA style tables. • Describe what the tables show, i.e., the pattern of results, but not a theoretical interpretation of your findings. • You are NOT required to report standard deviations or any inferential statistics although you may choose to include these if you wish. • As a guide, this section should be around 200 words. Discussion – 25% • This section should provide an interpretation and critique of our study which integrates our findings with the broader literature. • Begin with an interpretation of results with respect to your hypotheses • Integrate/explain your findings with respect to the literature you have drawn on • Provide a brief critique of study (see the textbook chapter on research methods). • As a guide, this section should be around 700 words. Citations and Referencing– 15% • All works (e.g., journal articles, books) used are correctly cited in text using APA format. • The reference list should include all cited articles (and none that are not cited!) in APA format. Self evaluation – 5% • A self-evaluation sheet will be uploaded onto blackboard. This sheet asks you to make an assessment of the quality of your own work using a grading rubric. You should print this out and fill it in just before you submit. Include it with your hardcopy only. You are not required to submit an electronic copy of the self-evaluation. Marks are awarded for addressing the points in listed above. In assigning marks the clarity and accuracy of writing, quality of argument, observance of APA style guidelines, and overall integration of the report will be considered.
Method Participants completed the survey in their own time. Consent information was provided at the beginning of the survey and consent was implied by submission of the survey. All participants were free to exit the survey at any time. The survey used a within subjects design (participants completed the questions for occasions when mixing alcohol with energy drink and occasions when alcohol was mixed with another beverage). The data set was screened for any participants who did not meet the criteria, i.e. surveys completed within seven minutes, surveys completed between 2 am and 7 am, and surveys submitted from the same computer (although conservative and risks losing valid responses from people sharing a computer, it is the best way to ensure valid data). Finally, if any participant answered ‘no’ to the final question, whether they have honestly and correctly answered all of the questions, they were excluded. The survey consists of two parts. In Part 1, demographic data was collected. Consumption questions were asked for alcohol alone, energy drinks alone, alcohol mixed with energy drinks, and alcohol mixed with another preferred mixer. In addition, a modified version of the BYAACQ was used to assess negative drinking-related behaviours for when drinking alcohol alone, when mixing alcohol with energy drink, and when mixing alcohol with another preferred beverage. Finally, level of risk taking behaviours (risk taking propensity) was determined with the RT-18. In Part 2, personality aspects were assessed. Several self-report instruments including the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Person’s Relating to Others Questionnaire (PROQ-2a) were given. The purpose of Part 2 was to investigate the psychological health of the population and relate this to total alcohol consumption. Note: these measures aren’t analysed in this assignment, and we have not included detailed descriptions of them. Instruments for this assignment Risk-Taking Questionnaire 18 Items (RT-18; Verster, Kuipers & Kuerten, 2009) The RT-18 was developed from items of subscales on Impulsiveness and Venturesomeness and the IVE questionnaire (Eysenck, Pearson, & Easting, 1985; Lijfijt, Caci, & Kenemans, 1993), Novelty Seeking from the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI; Cloninger, Svracik, Przybeck, 1993; Duijsens, Spinhoven, & Goekoop, 2000), and Impulsive Sensation Seeking (ImpSS) from the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (Zuckerman, Kuhlman & Hornquist, 1991). Questions of the RT-18 can be answered with either yes/no or correct/‘incorrect. Scores have a possible range from 0 to 18 with higher scores indicating higher risk-taking propensity. De Haan, L., Kuerten, Y., Kuipers, E., van Laar, M.W., Olivier, B., & Verster J.C. (2011). The RT-18: a new screening tool to assess young adult risk taking behavior. International Journal of General Medicine, 4, 575–584.
Data for Results Section A summary of some data from the survey that you completed a couple of weeks ago is given below. This survey was run nationally, but we have provided you with data for a subset of student respondents. The standard deviations (SD) and means (M) for the number of alcoholic drinks consumed are given broken down by gender, risk-taking propensity, and drink type. Select the appropriate data to present in your APA formatted table(s) in the Results section and design the table to clearly show the data in a way suited to testing your hypotheses.
Note that this is NOT an APA format table and the data has NOT necessarily been grouped in a way relevant to the research questions. Part of your task in this assignment is to figure out which numbers you need to present and how to arrange them in an APA format table.
Drink type is a “repeated measures” variable (also called within-subjects) because within each gender and risk group the same people have reported on their alcohol consumption associated with their drinking different types of alcoholic beverages.
Risk group and gender are “independent measures” (also called between-subjects) because the high and low risk-taking propensity groups are different people, as are the male and female groups. The risk groups were formed with a median split, that is the “low” group is the 50% lowest scoring persons, the “high” group is the top 50%. This split was made before dividing the sample up into groups by gender. It may be worth noting that although there are more females than males enrolled in psychology, a slightly greater number of males responded to the survey.
“Low” risk-taking propensity refers to RT scores between 4 and 10
“High” risk-taking propensity refers to RT scores between 11 and 17
Low Risk-Taking Propensity (RT score 4-10 ) Alcohol Consumption – Number of standard drinks per session Males n = 54 Females n=32 M SD M SD Alcohol 6.71 4.20 5.88 4.30 Alcohol/Energy Drink 4.71 4.33 4.21 2.77 High Risk-Taking Propensity (RT score 11-17 ) Alcohol Consumption – Number of standard drinks per session Males n = 38 Females n = 48 M SD M SD Alcohol 7.33 4.07 5.95 2.72 Alcohol/Energy Drink 6.58 3.88 4.74 3.73
Mean age of this sample was 20.83 years (SD = 3.89).
Getting Help and Advice A whole tutorial will be allocated to discussion of this assignment. See the tutorial schedule.
Other questions about this assignment should be posted to the special discussion forum for the second assignment on Blackboard.
Feedback You will receive a grade and feedback on this assignment before the end of semesters. You should review this feedback and keep it. Feedback from assignments should be used to guide your self- directed learning of psychology skills. It is also good practice to review feedback on past assignments when preparing a new assignment – feedback can help you exploit your strengths and avoid past error
these are the articles that we had to use for the first assignment which was on the same topic however it was just a review but this time its a report. so you have use these four articles and another four sources
• Year of Publication: 2012 • Journal: International Journal of General Medicine • Volume: 5 • Pages: 187-198 • Authors: Joris C. Verster and others • Article Title: Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: Misconceptions, myths and facts
Article 2 • Year of Publication: 2008 • Journal: Academic Emergency Medicine • Volume: 15, issue 5 • Pages: 453-460 • Authors: Mary Claire O’Brien and others • Article Title: Caffeinated cocktails: Energy drink consumption, high-risk drinking, and alcohol- related consequences among College students
Article 3 • Year of Publication: 2012 • Journal: Psychology of Addictive Behaviours • doi: 10.1037/a0029985 • Authors: Amy Peacock and others (a) • Article Title: Patterns of use and motivations for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink
Article 4 • Year of Publication: 2012 • Journal: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research • Volume: 36, issue 11 • Pages: 2008-2015 • Authors: Amy Peacock and others (b) • Article Title: The subjective physiological, psychological, and behavioural risk-taking consequences of alcohol and energy drink co-ingestion
These hypotheses must be based on the research questions below. Your hypotheses should be based on your reading of journal articles from Assignment 1 and at least FOUR additional journal articles you must find yourself