Needed is a BIOETICS writer with a Christian background and/or worldview.
Instructions for Research Paper:
• Page numbers at bottom
• DO NOT NUMEBR the COVER Page
• 2,000- word essay
• Double spaced
• 12 point font
• 1” inch margins
• FOOTNOTES in a consistent style
• Turban, Chicago, or SBL
• Multiple sources including:
• Holy Bible (King James Version)
• Peer-reviewed journals
• Monographs by prominent contributors to BIOETHICS
• Bibliography Page (10 Source)
Instructions for the research paper
Write a 2,000 paper on an ETHICAL ISSUE related to aging and end of life. The issue is EUTHANASIA and how it relates to ELDERLY (AGING AND END OF LIFE ISSUES).
The paper should begin by concisely stating the ethical issue by providing a biblically base response (Christian world view) where as it may conflict from a (Secular world view).
OUTLINE OF RESEARCH PAPER
I. Introduction (1) paragraphs
a. Story, The Quinlan and Cruzan cases help to set the legal precedent that life-sustaining medical procedures can be refused even if a patient is not competent to voice the refusal. However, there continues to be vigorous and heated debate concerning the circumstances under which medical procedures should be removed from patients without their explicit consent
i. USE AS AN OPEN INTRODUCTION: A CASE STUDY, (The Quinlan and Cruzan case)
I. What is Death (take the definition from the “Evangelical Ethics 3rd edition) by John Jefferson Davis? Page 184
II. Biblical Perspective and Guidelines (according to the Bible, death is unnatural, inevitable, and for the Christian, not final. Death is an unnatural intrusion into God’s good universe. It is a direct consequence of man’s sin (Gen. 2:17, “When you eat of it you will surely die” (NIV); Romans6:23, “for the wages of sin is death”). Death is the “last enemy,” an enemy of man that will be finally overcome at the time of Christ’s return and the final resurrection (1 Cor 15:26, 54-57). Because death is unnatural, the Christian will reject humanistic philosophies that see death and dying as only a “natural” transition to either oblivion or to some higher stage of existence. According to the Bible, for the unbeliever death is in fact a prelude to final judgment in the presence of God (Heb. 9:27) (from “Evangelical Ethics 3rd edition) page 192.
III. Define is Euthanasia? Euthanasia may be defined for the purpose of this research as “the deliberate killing of a person suffering an illness believed to be terminal, ostensibly out of: mercy.” This definition reflects the popular terminology of “mercy killing.” Some writers point out that the word euthanasia derives from the Greek (eu + Thanatos) literally means “good death.” Similarly, distinctions are sometimes drawn between “active” and “passive” euthanasia.
IV. Is Euthanasia a Dignified death? What should we do to a person hopelessly caught in a burning car who begs to be shot to death? Or when a strikingly deformed baby is born and suddenly stops breathing, is the doctor morally obligated to resuscitate the baby? Would it be more merciful to let the baby die? Again, perhaps a person with an incurable disease is being kept alive only by a ventilator machine. If the plug is pulled he/she will die; if he/she lives will he/she only be in a “vegetative” existence. These and several similar situations focus on the ethical problem inherent in euthanasia. The word euthanasia comes from the Greek language: eu meaning “good” and thanatos meaning “death”. The meaning of the word has evolved from “good death”. It now refers to the act of ending a person’s life, at their request. Euthanasia, also known as assisted suicide, physician-assisted suicide (dying), doctor-assisted dying (suicide), and a more loosely termed mercy killing. There are three main classifications of euthanasia: Voluntary, Involuntary, and Non-involuntary. There are two procedural classifications of euthanasia: Passive and Active.
V. Judeo-Christian Worldview on Euthanasia: use the following scriptures or Theology-Biblical Perspective on Euthanasia
Ex 20:13, Gen 1:26-27 (human life is sacred); 1 Cor 6:19 (the body of the dying can still be a temple of the Holy Spirit); and 1 Cor 6:19b-20 (you are not your own; you were bought with a price. So glorify God in your body.
The sovereignty of God (Deut.322:39) (Heb 9:27)
The Constitution gives no right to kill:
VI. It is not merciful to kill a sufferer
There is much to be learned through suffering (James 1:2-4; Rom 5:3-4; Job 23:10; James 5:11; and Heb 12:11).
There is no price tag on human life
The end does not justify the means- utilitarian’s ethics
VII. Secular Worldview on Euthanasia:
It is an act of mercy to the suffering family
It relieves the family of heavy financial strain
It relieves society of a great social burden
Peter Singer: then at Monash University in Australia, which provided a rationale for infanticide in the case of the severely handicapped new-born? “We can no longer base our ethic on the idea that human beings are a special form of creation, made in the image
of God,” stated Singer
• The Doctor’s Dilemma: A Question of Ethics
Doctors have a sticky situation when it comes to euthanasia. Not only do they have their own moral conscience to consider, but they must look at the situation from a medical ethics point of view. This view stems from the famous oath written by Hippocrates in the fifth century B.C. The moral debate over the permissibility of euthanasia has raised challenging questions for the entire medical profession . Physicians have always understood that the alleviation of suffering is at the heart of their profession. In the contemporary practice of medicine, however, this goal and responsibility is being extended beyond the promotion of health through the treatment of disease to a more general responsibility for alleviating suffering. The physician is now held responsible for solutions to human suffering, even when those solutions fall outside the boundaries of traditional medical practice.
• The Importance of a:
• PERSONAL TESTIMONY
During my earthly transition, I am absolutely certain the predominant variances for me will not be whether I am placed on a ventilator, artificial feeding tube, or CPR is administer if my heart stops. While each of these medical processes is essential, each will almost certainly be quite marginal. Significantly, my main interests will be how to face a dignified death; quality of life; sanctity of life and how paramount for my family members mainly my only son to operate on a daily basis without me.
Sadly, yet, bioethics has yielded to the schemata of physicians. Physicians face ethical concerns about treatment decisions-when to offer, withhold, and withdraw various treatments-and treatment decisions have been the focus of bioethics as well. But the issues that most trouble patients and their families at the end of life are not these. To them, the end of life is a spiritual crisis.
The word “spiritual” is ambiguous. As I use it, spiritual refers to concerns about the ultimate meaning and values in life. It has to do with our deepest sense of which we are and what life is all about.
Spiritual, then, does not mean religious. Indeed, this sense of spiritual forces us to ask, How effectively do organized religions address the spiritual needs of their members? It may be that some organized religions–or some representatives of them-serve to silence spiritual concerns at the end of life or to distract people from them. Irrefutably many Africana- American churches do not talk much about death, dying, living will or advance directives. One minister confessed, “We talk a lot about what we believe comes after death. But we skip pretty quickly over dying itself, except to say to make your peace with the Lord.” Often, there are strong social and religious pressures to suppress any doubts or questions; doubts and questions are taken as a sign of a weak faith. As a result, Christians can still find that their faith gives them no guidance about how to live the final chapter of life.
Currenlty, I have a living will, advance directive and estate planning. Recently, a sister in Christ called and asked for prayer. This person has been sick with a combination of several aligment. Wwe prayed and I asked if she had an advance directive. She is not on good terms with her only child and stated her daughter said “I will place in you a nursing home.” As my student mention to me”those are not my wishes.” I provided her with an attorney contact number to continue with the process in case of an emergency.
Use the following books:
• Christian Worldview
1. Kilner, John F., Arlene B. Miller, and Edmund D. Pellegrino, eds. Dignity and Dying: A Christian Appraisal. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996
2. Kilner, John F. Life on the Line: Ethics, Aging, Ending Patients Lives and Allocating Vital Resources. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992.
3. Kilner, John F. “Humanity in God’s Image: Is the Image Really Damaged? “Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 53.3 (2010): 601-17. ISBN 978-0-8028-6764-3
4. Hoekema, A. A. (1994). Created in God’s image. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-0850-9
5. Evangelical Ethics: Issues facing the church today. By John Jefferson Davis 3rd edition ISBN:10:0-87552-622-5
6. Christian Ethics: options and issues. By Norman L. Geisler ISBN: 0-8010-3832-4.
7. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: A Guide for Clinicians 5th edition. By Bernard Lo. ISBN: 978-1-4511-7640-7.