Fundamentals of Nursing

 

Question 3
Define the following terms in relation to the movement of body fluids

Osmosis

Osmolality

Osmotic pressure

Diffusion

Filtration

EACH EXPLANATION SHOULD BE VERY BRIEF IN YOUR ONW WORDS (less than 10 words each)

Question 4

Describe the processes involved in regulating body fluid volume. Include information on

· Thirst mechanism

· Hormonal regulation

· Organs involved in fluid regulation

Question 5

Discuss in detail the two problems associated with posterior pituitary and ADH dysfunction.

Your answer should include the following:

a) The two problems and brief pathophysiology associated with ADH dysfunction

b) How each affects fluid balance

c) Nursing assessment criteria for each one. (include lab work as well).

No more than 100-150 words.

#hint Diabetes insipidus and SIADH

Question 6

1) Write a short IV fluid lecture. Include the following

a) IV fluid and example

b) Uses

c) Nursing intervention as well as complications to be on alert for.

2) What are the four components of IV line maintenance?”
Question 7
For each of the following, give the normal blood level, functions of the electrolyte as well as signs and symptoms of the imbalance.

· Normal blood level of electrolyte

· functions of the electrolyte

· Causes of the imbalance

· signs and symptoms of the imbalance.

· Treatment

· What does the nurse do and how does the nurse educate patients

1. Hyponatremia

2. Hypernatremia

3. Hypokalemia

4. Hyperkalemia

5. Hypocalcemia

6. Hypercalcemia

7. Hypomagnesia

8. Hypermagnesia

Question8

Briefly, explain the following components of acid-base balance

pH

PaCO2

PaO2

Oxygen saturation

Base excess

Bicarbonate

Each answer should be between 10-15 words (In your own words)

Question 9

Describe the signs and symptoms of the following fluid imbalances

1) Fluid volume excess/Hypervolemia

2) Fluid volume deficit/hypovolemia

Your answer should include the following

a) Definition and brief pathophysiology

b) Causes of fluid imbalance

c) Signs and symptoms

d) Treatment

e) Nursing considerations.

Question10
Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Alkalosis

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic alkalosis

For the above primary acid-base imbalances, give a brief description on each. Your answer should give details on the following questions.

· Is this a lung problem or a kidney problem?

· What chemical is causing the problem?

· Do we have too much or too little of this chemical in the body

· Who is going to compensate? How and with what chemicals?

· Will the body excrete or absorb the acid?

· How is pH affected?

· What are the causes of the imbalance

· What are signs and symptoms

· What is the treatment?

· What will the nurse do?

Question 11
How do the lungs and kidneys compensate acid-base imbalances?

Question 12

Distended neck veins/peripheral veins: vessels are FULL OF FLUID, Peripheral edema, third spacing: vessels cant hold anymore, so they start to LEAK.

These are all signs of Fluid volume excess or fluid volume deficit ( fill in the correct answer)

Question 13

Lung sounds: ADVENTITIOUS (basal lungs, listen posterior in the back first), CRACKLES, WET,

Polyuria: kidneys trying to help you DIURESE (EXCRETE THE EXCESS

These are all signs of Fluid volume excess or fluid volume deficit ( fill in the correct answer
Answer

Question 14

Thoracentesis, paracentesis, vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhage

Third spacing (when fluid is in a place that does you no good)

*burns all the fluid goes out of the vascular space

*ascites the fluid goes into the abdomen or peritoneum (these present like its edema but its not there!!! Check the blood pressure with ascites (decreased), respiratory (shallow and rapid)

These are all signs of Fluid volume excess or fluid volume deficit ( fill in the correct answer
Question 15
Pulse INCREASE,is heart is trying to pump what little fluid is left. This is a compensation for

These are all signs of Fluid volume excess or fluid volume deficit ( fill in the correct answer

Question 16

When the peripheral Veins/Neck veins are very small and its hard to start and IV

These are all signs of Fluid volume excess or fluid volume deficit ( fill in the correct answer

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