Health care associated infection

 

Order Description
Planning Your Visit ?Public Talk Video (Part B)
Guidelines and Grading Rubric
PURPOSE
The purpose of this assignment is to: (a) identify communication strategies that support an effective policy making-presentation/visit (CO #2); (b) deliver a message and make recommendations (CO #2, 3), and (c) communicate ideas in a clear, succinct, and scholarly manner. (CO #3)
COURSE OUTCOMES
This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes:
(CO #2) Employ strategies to affect the development, implementation, and consequences of policies at the institutional, local, national, and international levels. (PO 4, 8, 10)

(CO #3) Communicate with policymakers to advocate for effective policies that affect nurses and nursing, consumers, or the health care system. (PO 2, 3, 10)

(CO #5) Advocate for institutional, local, national, and international policies that influence health care and its consumers and nurses and their nursing practice. (PO 2, 10)
DUE DATE: Sunday 11:59 p.m. MT at the end of Week 5
TOTAL POINTS: 75 points
REQUIREMENTS
Assignment Criteria for Presentation
1. Articulate your policy priority message in 3 minutes or less by video.
2. Video is to be of clear image and audible sound.
PREPARING THE VIDEO
Following completion of Planning Your Visit Ungraded Worksheet 2, any video may be uploaded onto the discussion threads (smartphone or from your computer). The video is to be of yourself delivering your priority message. It is to be succinct and to the point (3 minutes or less). The video is to be of good quality; easily read.

Category Points % Description
Video Content 50 67% Video message clearly introduces your healthcare policy-priority issue with recommendations for change. Concluding statements summarize content.
Video Quality 25 33% Video is of good quality. Clear picture and clearly audible.
Have fun with this!
Total 75 100
A quality assignment will meet or exceed all of the above requirements.

Planning Your Visit (Part A)
Guidelines and Grading Rubric
PURPOSE
The purpose of this assignment is to: (a) identify communication strategies that support an effective policy making-presentation/visit (CO #2); (b) deliver a message and make recommendations (CO #2, 3), and (c) communicate ideas in a clear, succinct, and scholarly manner. (CO #3)
COURSE OUTCOMES
This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes:
(CO #2) Employ strategies to affect the development, implementation, and consequences of policies at the institutional, local, national, and international levels. (PO 4, 8, 10)

(CO #3) Communicate with policymakers to advocate for effective policies that affect nurses and nursing, consumers, or the health care system. (PO 2, 3, 10)

(CO #4) Analyze the historical, ethical, and political contexts of health care policy and the consequences of policy implementation. (PO 6, 10)

(CO #5) Advocate for institutional, local, national, and international policies that influence health care and its consumers and nurses and their nursing practice. (PO 2, 10)
DUE DATE: Sunday 11:59 p.m. MT at the end of Week 5
TOTAL POINTS: 100 points
REQUIREMENTS
Assignment Criteria for Presentation
1. Introduce your chosen policy issue, the current status, and an overview of your plan for a legislative visit.
2. Articulate key communication strategies involved in your approach to the legislator including plan, message, and recommendations under each of the Planning Your Visit Ungraded Worksheet 2 sections using headings in your paper.
3. Provide an analysis of empirical evidence of effective communication strategies in policymaking including plan, message, and follow-up.
4. Provide specific examples of the impact and/or importance of a successful visit/presentation to nursing.
5. Provide concluding statements summarizing the content.
6. Paper will be 2-3 pages, excluding title and reference pages, and in APA format 6th edition.
7. Five non-text book references are required as minimum.

PREPARING THE PAPER
Following completion of Planning Your Visit Ungraded Worksheet 2, target communication strategies that support an effective policymaking visit. Include a minimum of five (5) classic references or current references (published within the past 5 years) that support your policy plan, the message, recommendations, and follow-up.

Category Points % Description
Introduction and Conclusion 10 10 Introduction clearly introduces your healthcare policy-priority issue. Concluding statements summarize content.
Empirical Evidence 50 50 Provide an analysis of empirical evidence of effective communication strategies supporting your approach to the legislator including plan, message, recommendations, and follow-up.

Specific Examples 20 20 Provide specific examples of the impact and/or importance of a successful visit/presentation to nursing.

APA Format 10 10 Text, title page, and references are consistent with APA format 6th edition.
Writing Quality 10 10 Rules of grammar, word usage, sentence and paragraph format, and punctuation are followed. Paper length appropriate.
Total 100 100
A quality assignment will meet or exceed all of the above requirements.

GRADING RUBRIC
Assignment Criteria Exceptional
(100%)
Outstanding or highest level of performance Exceeds
(88%)
Very good or high level of performance Meets
(80%)
Competent or satisfactory level of performance Needs Improvement
(38%)
Poor or failing level of performance Developing
(0)
Unsatisfactory level of performance
Content Possible Points = 100 Points
Introduction and Conclusion
10 Points 9 Points 8 Points 4 Points 0 Points
Introduction clearly introduces your healthcare/policy-priority issue, current status, and overview of plan for policymaker visit/presentation. Concluding statements summarizing content have no inaccuracy.
Introduction of your healthcare/policy-priority issue, current status, and overview of plan for policymaker visit/presentation has rare inaccuracy. Concluding statements lack occasional important element or specificity. Introduction of your healthcare/policy-priority issue, current status, and overview of plan for policymaker visit/presentation lacks occasional important element or specificity. Concluding statements lack occasional important element or specificity. Introduction of your healthcare/policy-priority issue, current status, and overview of policymaker visit/presentation has multiple instances of inaccuracies or is lacking content. Concluding statements have multiple instances of inaccuracies or lacks content. No attempt at introduction or conclusion.
Empirical Evidence 50 Points 44 Points 40 Points 19 Points 0 Points
Empirical evidence of effective communication strategies supporting your healthcare policy-priority issue has no inaccuracy and is clearly articulated. Empirical evidence of effective communication strategies supporting your healthcare policy-priority issue has a few inaccuracies. Empirical evidence of effective communication strategies supporting your healthcare policy-priority issue has multiple instances of inaccuracies or lacks detail/articulation. Empirical evidence of effective communication strategies supporting your healthcare policy-priority issue has is missing. No attempt at providing Empirical evidence.
Specific Examples 20 Points 18 Points 16 Points 8 Points 0 Points
Provides specific examples of the impact and/or importance of a successful visit/presentation to nursing and has no inaccuracy and is clearly articulated.
Provides specific examples of the impact and/or importance of a successful visit/presentation to nursing and lacks occasional important elements or specificity and/or lacks clarity. Provides specific examples of the impact and/or importance of a successful visit/presentation to nursing and has multiple instances of inaccuracies and/or lacks clarity. No specific examples of the impact OR importance of a successful visit/presentation to nursing. No specific examples of the impact AND importance of a successful visit/presentation to nursing.
Content Subtotal_____of 80 points
Format Possible Points = 20 Points
APA Format: 10 Points 9 Points 8 Points 4 Points 0 Points
Text, title page, and reference page(s) are completely consistent with APA format. There are 1?2 APA format errors in the text, title page, and/or reference page(s). There are 3?4 APA format errors in the text, title page, and/or reference page(s). There are 5 APA format errors in the text, title page, and/or reference page(s). There are 6 or more APA format errors in the text, title page, and/or reference page(s).
Writing Quality. 10 Points 9 Points 8 Points 4 Points 0 Points
Paper is appropriate in length. References include the minimum of five (5) scholarly references, excluding the course text. Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are consistent with formal written work. Paper is short or long in length and/or contains fewer than 5 but more than 1 scholarly reference, excluding course text, or references utilized are not scholarly. Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are consistent with formal written work with1?2 exceptions. Paper is short or long in length and contains only 1 scholarly reference. Additional references are not scholarly. Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are consistent with formal written work with 3?4 exceptions. Paper is two or more pages short or long in length and does not contain scholarly references. References utilized are not scholarly. Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are not followed with 5 errors Paper is two or more pages short or long in length and does not contain scholarly references. References utilized are not scholarly. Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are not followed with 6 or more errors.
Format Subtotal_____of 20 points
Total Points_____of 100 points

Planning a Visit Worksheet – 2
In recent years, the problem of hospital-acquired infections (HAI) has gained the utmost importance for all countries of the world. Rapid growth of the number of medical institutions, creation of new types of medical (therapeutic and diagnostic) equipment, use of the newest drugs with immunosuppressive properties, the artificial suppression of the immune system in the transplantation of organs and tissues: these and many other factors increase the risk of the spread of infections among patients and personnel of medical institutions. The hospital-acquired infections are the infections, which are received by patients and by medical employees in hospitals.
Until now, the problem is not resolved legislatively. The addressing of the HAI problem boils down to some preventive activities only and is very difficult for a variety of reasons (organizational, epidemiological, scientific and methodical). The effectiveness of the fight against HAI is determined by compliance of constructive solution of a medical institution (MI) building to the latest scientific achievements and requirements, by modern equipment of the medical institutions, as well as by strict compliance with the requirements of anti-epidemic regime at all stages of medical care. In any MI, regardless of its profile, three following critical requirements must be observed:
? minimizing of the possibilities of bringing infections;
? exclusion of in-hospital infections;
? exclusion of bringing infections out of the hospital.
In matters of the prevention of HAIs, the nurses in hospitals has major and leading roles ? the roles of the organizer, of the responsible performer and of the controller. Daily, careful and strict compliance with the requirements of sanitary-hygienic and anti-epidemic regime in the course of their professional duties is the basis of the list of measures for the prevention of HAIs. In this regard, it should be emphasized the importance of the role of senior nurses of clinical and diagnostic hospital units. These employees include, mostly, the nurses, who have long worked in this specialty, have organizational skills and are well versed in matters of regime rules.
The HAIs problem should be solved with the involvement of legislators at the federal level. Thus, it would be possible to fix the solution of this problem in the federal legislation. However, the first step in solving the problem of HAIs will be a contact with the Governor of the State, and later with the administrators of concerned hospitals. Effective communication with the hospitals administrators, as well as with the Governor, requires careful preparation. The first thing to do is to state the problem in a written form or in the form of presentation with the maximum explanation of all the relevance of this issue to date. The presentation must contain information about real cases of HAIs. Another important aspect would be evidence of affected patients and their families. An important point in the negotiations will be the collection of statistical data in the local region or the state. The final stage may be a sociological survey of the population, which will allow me to present the problem for the legislator from the standpoint of the common people. These methods will help to identify the sharp edges of the issue and to focus the legislator?s attention on it.
Effective conducting of the meeting with the legislator also requires serious and careful organizational work. Such meeting must be arranged in advance. Negotiations on its organizing may be made by e-mail or by phone. Preparing for the meeting should be especially careful. It is necessary to take into account all the features of the working schedule of the legislator that he/she had enough time to listen all that I would prepare to tell him/her. Also, the additional time for his/her counter-questions is required.
My main message to the legislator will be the information on the relevance of HAIs and about the danger of their spreading. The urgency of the problem of HAIs is determined by the wide spread of them in the medical institutions of various profiles and by significant damage, which is caused by these diseases to public health. HAIs not only provoke additional morbidity, they also increase duration of treatment and lead to an increase in hospitalization costs; cause long-term physical and neurological complications, developmental disorders; often lead to the death of patients. The hospital-acquired infections continue to be among the most common complications in hospitalized patients. For example, in the U.S., they are the fourth most common cause of mortality, after diseases of the cardiovascular system, cancers and strokes (“CDC HAI Data and Statistics”, 2016). Their prevalence study, which was conducted under the auspices of World Health Organization (WHO) in 55 hospitals of 14 countries, showed that 8.7% on average (3-21%) of hospitalized patients had HAIs (Gastmeier, 2012). At any moment of time, more than 1.5 million people worldwide suffer from infectious complications, which were acquired in hospitals. Depending on various factors, the incidence of HAIs ranges from 3 to 5% on average, but these values may be much higher in certain groups of high-risk patients. According to a study, which was conducted in the UK, HAIs occur in 9% of hospitalized patients, are the direct cause of 5,000 lethal outcomes per year and contribute to 15,000 cases of the same outcomes, with annual material damages of approximately $1 billion (Newell, 2010). The use of the above statistics will confirm the importance of the issue and will give serious grounds for convincing the legislator in the need for action to address this problem.
For the complete and high-quality conveying, the message to the legislator, as well as for the proper distribution of meeting time, it is necessary to consider and to plan carefully the technique of the forthcoming negotiations. To begin, I need:
? to pre-analyze the negotiating parties, the topic and the situation;
? to define objectives of the negotiation for holding the initiative in its conduct;
? to prepare a detailed plan for the negotiation with a clear program of action to ensure interrelation with the legislator;
? to determine the time constraints for the implementation of the plans for this meeting (Peeling, 2014).
The most essential point of the negotiations is the transfer of required information to the legislator. It should perform the following tasks:
? gathering of the information on the HAIs problem;
? identifying of the interest of the legislator in solving this problem;
? the transfer of the planned message with mandatory use of statistical data;
? forming the basis for argumentation (with validation of the arguments);
? preliminary determination of follow-up activities (this will facilitate the final phase ? decision-making).
The last phase of the negotiations should be the final decision making. The main objective of this phase is to stimulate the legislator to perform the planned actions, to summarize results of the negotiations with the clearly highlighted main conclusion, to sign a possible agreement on all the reached points (Peeling, 2014).
In conclusion, it is possible to say that a successful solution of the HAIs problem will raise the quality of modern medical care to a higher level. An official appeal to the responsible government officials and the competent reasoning of the issue relevance will allow to legislate the necessary measures for the solution of the HAIs problem. This problem should be solved at the federal level, and this must ensure complete safety of the treatment of patients in hospitals.

References
CDC HAI Data and Statistics. (2016). Cdc.gov. Retrieved 28 August 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/hai/surveillance/index.html
Dellinger, E. (2016). Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections. Surgical Infections, 17(4), 422-426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/sur.2016.048
Gastmeier, P. (2012). Surveillance of health care-associated infections around the world. International Journal of Infection Control, 8(4).
Newell, D. (2010). Health Care Research IN the United Kingdom. Community Health Studies, 8(1), 113-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-6405.1984.tb00434.x
Peeling, N. (2014). Managing difficult situations and discussions. Harlow, U.K.: Pearson Education.

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