M. Revlon Alice, Systematic thinking of social action.  1971.

M. Revlon Alice, Systematic thinking of social action.  1971.

Thesis: The chapter deals with appropriate techniques that should be utilized to offer social services in a better manner the services are in the health sector and education they are basically three in number, decentralization, community control, and market model. The methods have been said to have the capability to resolve the issue of incentives and reduce the task of trying to discover new efficient ways but the chapter emphasizes that the models cannot resolve all service-producing matters the accomplishment of the methods can only be achieved if certain conditions are fulfilled these include systematic and vigorous efforts to test and find more efficient methods use of enhanced well established social service.

M. Revlon Alice, Systematic thinking of social action.  1971.

Decentralization involves breaking down central administration, like systems of government and education sectors into units that can be easily managed this is because the country is too diverse and big with very many schools which have   a wide range  of different capacities,needs and problems that contrast universal rules would cause extreme harm.

Community control is another approach where social services offered to the people are actually controlled by the community itself in order for consumers to be more aggressive the move seems to benefit the minority such as the poor and the blacks, the move aims to offer the community more power   and relevance especially where ghetto education is involved.

Market model is a thrilling method of decentralization and concentrates on the individual consumer. Huge arguments have developed on who should offer social services between the private sector and the public sector, those supporting the private sector claim that they are efficient since they seek to gain profit by attracting and pleasing the consumer and hence the voucher idea was established.

Pressman Jeffrey and Wildavsky, Implementation, 1973.

Thesis: The  employment effort by the employment development sector in Oakland at the end of the 1960s drew a lot of attention by offering minority employment   that was publicly  uncovered by an individual who  participated fully in the economic development administration  indicating that the federal government almost suffered an economic blow  from ruins and damages from riots on average about 3€  million had been used to create jobs so as to avoid  riots  by keeping them busy and job occupied  and the Hegenberger overpass was built  with the rest of the money being used to pay the architects.

The national performance review, red tape to results; creates a government that works better and costs less, 1993.

Thesis: This set deals with peoples level of trusting the government concerning its strategies of solving issues since most federal programs don’t work.Bill Clinton made effot by creating the national performance assessment to monitor the progress of many programs and make recommendations so as to ensure the government reduces unhealthy bureaucracy, make the government productive and improve service to the tax payers.

The industrial sector is also facing the same problems both the public and private firms, however afew solutions have been identified they include reducing  red tape by  ensuring the government streamlines their budject,procurement systems ,personnel and eradicate any regulation or law that inhibits development of innovations another way is to put your customers on the forefront  by ensuring total customers satisfaction by listening to them through  focus groups and surveys where necessary  developing incentives that make sure workers  put customers on the forefront. Also enabling workers to acquire results where the labor management group offers training to ensure workers are efficient and hold meetings that analyses the results, entrepreneurial governments are responsible for all this activities.

The last one involves producing better government for less where the cost is reduced but the effectiveness of the government is still maintained by loan funds, greater productivity and advanced modern technology is adapted to reduce on cost.One quote from Bill Clinton says that “our goal is to make the entire federal government both less expensive and more efficient ,and to change the culture of our national bureaucracy away from complacency and entitlement toward initiative and empowerment.We intend to redesign , to reinvent,to reinvigorate the entire national government”(52)

Each article  is unique giving a wide variety of rich  information some of which is  secretely held by the government , while some other information actually  helps boost the federal government itself,the first article by Alice is very important since it offers to help the minority and gives other modes of  ensuring people acquire social services in an equal and effective way.The second  article by Aaron Wildavsky  and Jeffrey L.Pressman aims to inform people about a the threat that the federal government narrowly evaded due  to the high rate of unemployment the author discloses content that was not available to the public .The last article by the national performance review aims at ensuring problems facing the federal government and the industrial sector are solved by giving a variety of  solutions .


 Alice .M. (1971).”Systematic thinking of social action. “. The Brooking institution.

(1993). “from red tape to results; creating a government that works better and costs less.”           Washington. Government printing office.

  Pressman .l   and Wildavsky .A (1973)    “Implementation.”         California .University of         California             press.

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