Product Differentiation Essay

Product Differentiation Essay.

Definition:

Development or incorporation of attributes (such as benefits, price, quality, styling, service, etc.) that a product’s intended customers perceive to be different and desirable. Advertising and promotion of a product is based on its differentiating characteristics. Source: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/product-differentiation.html

Today, the market is crowded with similar brands, clamoring for the attention of customers. In order for their brands to stand out, companies strive hard to make them appear different from competing brands. This is product differentiation.

Product differentiation is an objective that a business may try to achieve through its marketing. Any business, must try to differentiate products from those of competitors, so as to gain a ‘competitive edge’ over them, thereby attracting more customers. This difference can be achieved by altering the product- making it better than that of the competitor’s or it can be ‘perceived’- such as a strong brand identity developed in the promotional campaign.

Need for product differentiation: usually customers cannot tell the difference between competing products- hence the need to differentiate developing a competitive advantage

Focus and differentiation

A product may have a lot of attributes, but it is essential to focus on only few of the attributes.

Eg: Volvo-safety, BMW-performance : but it doesn’t mean that Volvo does not perform or BMW is not safe. They have just focused on those aspects of their products. Therefore their products will be differentiated on that particular attribute. If a product claims to be good at everything, you run the risk of consumers not believing what you say, even though you may have all those attributes. If a product is focused: 1) more credible 2) customers will think that they are as strong in other areas.

What to differentiate:

Easiest way to differentiate is on price, but it is least effective as competitors can always copy it easily.Example: Indian computer market included companies such as HCL and IBM. Then came Siva from sterling computers which sold it’s computers at a cheaper price. Therefore others followed suit, and then Siva had to further differentiate it’s product in order to attract customers as competing products were similarly priced. Hence, it is better to differentiate on other attributes such as- features, performance, reliability, reparability, design, style, performance and so on.

Examples:

1) Blackberry- Differentiated by addition of BBM in their smart phones. Although other smart phones with IM platforms existed, Blackberry was the one of the first to offer this service to customers as a standard on it’s devices. Their competition did not have any such service at the time. This attracted customers. 2) Promise- People thought promise was different from other toothpastes as it had clove oil however even some other toothpastes had clove oil, but only Promise focused on this attribute and hence it was perceived as a differentiating characteristic. 3) Hero Honda motorcycles- differentiated in terms of fuel efficiency- “fill it shut it, forget it”

Branding and Product differentiation

Branding is one way of differentiating products and services. Industries like the garments and tobacco industries, for example, use branding very effectively as the products within these segments are often very similar and have little to distinguish themselves from each other. Branding helps to retain customer loyalty. Example: Smokers, are very particular about their brand and believe that no other brand can satisfy them. In an experiment, 300 smokers who were loyal to 3 major brands were given an unidentifiable sample of each brand to smoke and were asked to identify their own brand.

The result: only 35% were able to identify the brands; and under the law of averages, pure guesses accounted for a third of correct identifications. The reason for this was that brands of cigarettes within the same category (menthol for example) differ very marginally in terms of strength, flavour and taste, and it is difficult for a smoker to truly distinguish between them. The reason why a smoker is loyal to a particular brand is the advertisment. Eg: Charminar: “it takes charminar to satisfy a man like you” – reinforces that only Charminar can satisfy the man who smokes them!

Product differentiation vs USP

USP is not the same as Product differentiation.
USP refers to advertising to communicate a product’s differentiation while Product differentiation is the process of describing the differences between products or services.

Types of differentiation:

Horizontal Differentiation: is by the customer’s preference/taste of certain characteristics of the product. (Same qualities/price, different style/taste/colour) Perceived value remains the same. (eg: different colours of lipsticks) Vertical: Products differ in some characteristic which all consumers agree is best. Based on quality. Prices differ as perceived value differs (eg: Different brands of lipstick: Mac, Lakme, Lipice) Horizontal differentiation is about consumers’ wants and preferences, while vertical differentiation focuses on the consumers’ willingness to pay for the quality.

Remember:

DO NOT offer wildly exaggerated differentiation that the market does not want. (eg: High priced men’s toilet soap “Aramusk” was unsuccessful due to price)

DO NOT negate useful and expansive differentiation by under attending to other parts of the product- service package. The difference should be OVER AND ABOVE the MINIMUM expectations.
Example: Fancy hotels with poor service

The product is not differentiated until the CUSTOMER understands the difference . The consumer perception is what matters.

Product Differentiation Essay

The Power of Fallacy in Advertising Essay

The Power of Fallacy in Advertising Essay.

Fallacies in advertising are prevalent nowadays to gain commercial advantage to the target audience primarily because people do no’t bother giving attention to traditional ads whether it is on the radio, on television, or on the Internet. It’s a very powerful advertising tool that focuses on deceptive claims that makes us hear what we want to hear and see what we want to see. Take the Xenadrine EFX diet pill advertisement for example. The advertisement claims to help burn off fat by boosting metabolism, though they never cited a qualified scientific study to back it up.

The marketers of the product hired already physically fit actors and actresses to create an illusion that Xenadrine EFX helps in reducing body fat. The claim was later investigated by the Federal Trade Commission and was found guilty of falsifying claims and was therefore fined. Using fallacy in advertising helps attract viewers by leading them to believe in the effect of the product even if it’s effects are not proven.

It has its downsides as the example above explains, but it still is a very powerful tool that captures the target audiences effectively. Another form of fallacy that’s very popular nowadays is called ad hominem.

According to The Dictionary website, ad hominem is defined as “Appealing to one’s prejudices, emotions, or special interests rather than to one’s intellect or reason. ” (2006) Ad hominem is used more often because the nature of it is judging a person by what they do and who they are rather than hearing what he has to say and what he has to offer. In reality, people always use ad hominem always, especially they fight for what they think is right based on their own judgment. Most people are opinionated and full of pride that they tend to judge first based on their common knowledge.

Ad hominem is a type of fallacy that people are accustomed to. It’s basically the kind of fallacy that seems to be around for ages even before the word itself was invented. Generally, people subconsiously practice it everyday without even knowing it, therefore it’s easier for them to apply it in everything that they do. Reference (2006). Ad hominem. Retrieved February 26, 2008 from http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/ad%20hominem. (n. d. ). US weight-loss pill marketers fined for falls claims. Retrieved February 26, 2008 from http://www. contactomagazine. com/articles/weightloss0107. htm

The Power of Fallacy in Advertising Essay

The Aquarius Advertising Agency Essay

The Aquarius Advertising Agency Essay.

Organizations struggle daily with organizational problems that occur in the work force. From reengineering to developing a new structure, some organizations go through it almost daily to try and iron out so flaws in their design to make sure they get the maximum production and maximum efficiency. For instance this advertising company Aquarius Advertising Agency is having a big problem with their structure. The main issue in this case is the need for reorganization and reengineering of the structure of the company.

The hierarchal schema and lack of horizontal cooperation has caused the company personnel to have conflicts with each other and thus their business is suffering. Aquarius Advertising needs a structural framework that encourages employees to engage in horizontal information sharing.

The reason why this is happening to Aquarius Advertising Agency is apparent in the working relationships of the employees at Aquarius. The account executives are frustrated with the specialists because they are going around them instead of through them to make decisions for the clients.

It is apparent that structure of the organization is wrong for this company because too many problems are occurring and the clients are suffering. If the personnel changed at Aquarius the problems would remain because of the structure of the organization this is one indication that the framework needs modification.

Another reason that the structure needs to change is because of the rapid turnover of accounts and the inability of Aquarius to efficiently respond to these changes. However the most significant reason and cause for the main issue in this case is the conflict between the different units in the organization. Without cooperation and better communication the company may fail and the structural framework and hierarchy needs to change so that the employees can work well together to satisfy the clients.

Possible Actions

Currently Aquarius is working with a functional and hierarchal structure and this design has been proven not to be the right framework for this company. It is crucial that the agency flattens out their structure and increases their horizontal linkages in order to meet the goals of the organization. This is a fast moving company and if the company doesn’t act quick then they could possibly lose more and more clients than what they are now with their current drop in turnover ratio. There three main structural designs that Aquarius could consider to put in full effect. The first structure that could possibly suit the agency is the divisional structure. The divisional structure or product structure organizes the agency into divisions according to organizational outputs. At Aquarius if a divisional structure were chosen the employees would be grouped into units comprised of different client accounts or major projects for the company.

This structure brings the various specialists together in divisions that support the specific projects needs. The difference between the divisional structure and the current functional structure that the company uses is that the divisional structure supports a rapidly changing environment because each unit is smaller and more collaborative. Also the divisional structure doesn’t have to make as many decisions because the decision making and the authority lies in the lower lever of the hierarchy.

Choosing the divisional structure would most likely lead to a more unified working environment for the account managers and the specialists because they would be grouped into smaller units working together to reach the clients goals. However, a divisional structure is best suited for large organizations and Aquarius Advertising Agency is a medium sized company and may not have enough employees to spread throughout the different projects. For this reason the divisional structure alone would not be the best alternative for the company design.

Another reorganization strategy that Aquarius could consider is the matrix structure. The matrix organization is an effort to fuse the advantages of the functional structure (the current structure at Aquarius) and the divisional structure (mentioned above). This structure is best suited for organizations like Aquarius that are medium sized and project driven. The distinctive feature of the matrix organization is that both the divisional and functional structures are executed at the same time. The account executives and functional managers would have equivalent authority within the organization and employees report to both of them. The matrix structure solves the problem that Aquarius currently faces in regards to the horizontal linkages. With this structure the agency specialists would be required to communicate and collaborate with the account executives because of the newly implemented horizontal authority lines.

Information sharing is necessary in a matrix organization and numerous people may be necessary for the same client account. In general the account executive has the total responsibility and accountability for the success of the clients account. The functional departments such as operations and marketing have the responsibility to maintain technical quality on the project. At Aquarius the individuals involved in the client’s accounts currently lack good interpersonal skills which will be a problem if the matrix structure is implemented.

The specialists already have difficulty following the lines of authority with respect to the account executives and with the matrix structure a dual authority would be created which could cause even more problems for the company. If the specialists continued to sidestep the authority of the account executives then Aquarius would have an intricate management system in place that still does not create coordination among the functions that they need. At this time due to the lack of interpersonal and conflict resolution skills amongst the individuals at Aquarius the matrix structure would not be the best alternative for the organization.

Suggested Action

The external environment is rapidly changing for the advertising industry and in order to be successful Aquarius needs to be flexible to these changes. This is one of the reasons that a hybrid structure for Aquarius would be the best recommendation for the organization. The hybrid structure best suited for Aquarius is a combination of the functional and horizontal structures and takes advantage of the strength of the two designs. Below is an organizational chart for the new hybrid structure at Aquarius. This hierarchy is flatter in this structure than the current functional design in place at the agency. The departments of legal counsel, policy committee, executive vice president, financial managers and human resources are all grouped according to the different functions each department provides and they are in direct contact and with the president and board of directors of the company.

Maintaining the functional structure with these departments insures that the authority over them resides in the hands of top management of the company. The horizontal structure in this hybrid consists of the account executives having direct authority over the teams that are compromised of the different specialists at the agency. The use of project teams will provide strong coordination over the long period of time that a client has an account at the agency.

Teams will provide strong horizontal organization and with the use of information technologies the client accounts can be managed efficiently. The collaboration of the different team members with the account executives insures that the client accounts will be well managed and decisions are made as a group instead of by different specialist departments acting alone. The account executives must then report to the functional departments to validate that they are making decisions best suited for the organization.

The hybrid structure brings together the usefulness of having the functional departments remain intact at the top of the hierarchy while organizing the specialists into teams aligned to work together for one account. This structure relieves the organization of a severely vertical hierarchy and implements a system where there will be more cooperation and coordination between the account executives and the agency specialists. The reengineering of an organizations structure takes time and consideration on many levels of the company.

I think the most important aspect managers have to make about the structural design of an organization is deciding the right balance between the vertical and horizontal coordination. The hybrid structure laid out in the organizational chart above would bring the best results for the Aquarius Advertising Agency. A combination of the functional and horizontal structures insures that some vertical authority remains however, more horizontal communication and cooperation will lead to a more efficient work environment.

The Aquarius Advertising Agency Essay

Cause and Effect of Advertising on Blood Donation Essay

Cause and Effect of Advertising on Blood Donation Essay.

Over the last 30 years, there have been many campaigns in order to promote blood donation. The purpose and focus of these advertisements has been to promote unpaid volunteers to donate blood. This blood is direly needed to keep blood banks full in order to service individuals who need blood transfusions around the world. Overall, blood donation advertising has been extremely successful in producing the desired effect.

In the past, there was a shortage of younger individuals who were donating blood. Thus, blood donation organizations launched hip and youth focused campaigns in order to encourage these individuals to donate.

The campaign focused on television, radio and internet advertising in order to reach youths. Socialblood.org has connected with Facebook to encourage blood donation. Socialblood, which can be seen below, allows you to join groups based upon your blood type. The effect of these efforts has resulted in more youth donating blood and then passing the word along. By word of mouth, the youth of the world are conducting their own advertising campaign to keep efforts alive.

Also, there have been jobs created for individuals to be liaisons to high school and college students. These individuals organize and conduct blood drives in high schools, colleges, and even social organizations such as sororities, fraternities, and clubs. This has been money well spent and has resulted in less paid donations.

Blood donation advertising increased due to the need for not just blood, but the need for clean blood. During the 1970s, much of the blood in blood banks came from paid donors. Since the screening process to donate at the time was minimal to non-existent, there was a large risk that blood donors could carry diseases. Many individuals, including drug users and people who did not practice safe sex, donated blood in order to make extra money. In fact, some of these diseases carried by donors were not even discovered or named until later on. Paid donors had tainted the blood supply with diseases such as HIV, Syphilis, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. It was not until the late 1980s that a more extensive method of testing was developed. Now the number of blood donations not tested is extremely slim. Also, many countries have made it illegal to pay donors to donate their blood and rely solely on volunteers to provide blood banks with their supply.

Clean blood donations have drastically impacted people and the economy. By ensuring that blood supply is not tainted, people are receiving much safer blood and are impacted less by life threatening diseases. This also positively impacts the economy by a reduction in lawsuits and settlements. It also keeps insurance costs for diseases contracted through blood transfusions.

Blood donation advertising has increased the number of individuals turning out to donate blood at consistently and during times of need. These individuals are donating their blood in order to help individuals in crisis. Often, advertising is not even needed to encourage individuals to turn out when there is a natural disaster such as a hurricane, flood, or tornado. There was a major outpouring during the time following Hurricane Katrina and during last year’s tornados in Alabama and Tennessee.

One of the greatest effects of blood donation advertising and increased donation is the screening of blood for diseases. Individuals are screened for specific illnesses prior to donation, such as anemia. This can result in an individual finding out about a particular illness that may have gone undetected until much later. This can save individuals and insurance companies a lot of money. Thus, it would have a less negative impact on the economy.

Other diseases are screened for after donation. Depending on the organization, individuals will likely be informed if they have a life threatening blood borne disease. This can impact an individual greatly through early intervention or by informing them about a disease that could be impacting them with little to no knowledge of its existence. In fact, hepatitis has may not show any symptoms for decades. By that time most of the damage has already been done. It would most likely present itself as cirrhosis or even liver cancer. The treatment for both can be very costly, such as liver transplant, or even futile.

The reasons for blood donation advertisement focus on raising awareness to different individuals to volunteer their time and blood to help fill local blood banks to capacity. However, the impact and effect of donating is much more long lasting. By donating blood, an individual may not be just giving life to someone else, but life to themselves or even to the economy.

References
Blood Centers of the Pacific | Media Room | PR Archive 2004 | Press Release Archive 2004. (n.d.). Blood Centers of the Pacific | Find the hero in you. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from http://www.bloodcenters.org/media-room/pr-archive-2004/first-national-blood-donation-campaign-launched/ San Jose Blood Bank: Blood Donation | Ads of the Worldâ„¢. (n.d.). Ads of the Worldâ„¢ | Creative Advertising Archive & Community. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from http://adsoftheworld.com/media/dm/san_jose_blood_bank_blood_donation?size=_original Socialblood leverages Facebook to help you find blood donors – Apps. (n.d.). The Next Web – International technology news, business & culture. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from http://thenextweb.com/apps/2011/11/04/indian-startup-socialblood-leverages-facebook-to-help-you-find-blood-donors/ WHO Blood Safety and Availability. (n.d.). World Health Organization. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs279/en/

Cause and Effect of Advertising on Blood Donation Essay

MTV: Building Brand Resonance Essay

MTV: Building Brand Resonance Essay.

1 – What is the MTV brand image? How valuable are the MTV brand associations? What should its core values be?

The MTV brand started out with a focus on the music where it helped to launch the visual impact of bands through music videos. MTV is a youth oriented brand, that started as a purely music video station, and has now involved into a pop-culture station with a mix of long-form programming, and videos. They created stars and termed new expressions like VJs and quickly differentiated their product from the competition.

As a result of having a first-mover advantage they were the TV channel to go to in order to endorse your music. They managed to build up their brand and be a key channel for promotion where artists where demanding to have their own videos played on MTV. MTV remains a strong brand within the youth segment but needs to constantly evolve in order to maintain their position with new trends and changes emerging.

The brand associations are strong since they are attached to a certain target-group (youths) that is very desirable to reach for many advertisers. The adolescence and early adulthood that MTV reaches are important for establishing enduring preferences for a specific type of brand that might follow a person throughout his life. Viewed as very “hip and now” many teens look to the channel to see what is popular and what the up and coming trends of today are. MTV has very strong brand attributes, with its viewers and even with people that do not view the channel as one they would frequently watch, therefore giving the brand strong brand associations. MTV has core values of staying on top of music and cultural trends, as a result ensuring their continued growth of their audience; MTV needs to stay relevant to stay on top.

2 – Describe the current sources of MTV’s brand equity. How have they changed over time?

MTV creates its brand equity through high level of awareness and brand associations it’s made with its targeted viewers. MTV did this by using VJ’s or video jockeys to bring the viewers “along for the ride”. VJ’s made it’s a much more personal experience as if they were friends with the audience. The use of long-form programming has helped keep viewers interested in the channel by keeping relevant in its programming, by moving away from its roots as a music only channel and giving viewers what they were interested at any point in time. There are multiple genres and cultures represented on MTV and the channel high ratings among its key teen demographic, especially females.

The evolution of the channel has kept the brand equity. In 2010 the MTV logo changed and no longer contained the tag-line “Music Television” to further emphasize their shift away from the pure music. By focusing more on programs that were “culture” shows and not only music they have managed to maintain a strong brand. Throughout their changes of focus MTV has managed to keep its core values intact. They are a channel for the younger generation that constantly provokes and stays on the edge of new concepts. By having a brand aimed at pop culture they constantly have to re-invent themselves to stay current. One of the biggest challenges for MTV is managing growth because usually when things become too popular it is no longer considered to be cool.

3 – What is the role of music within MTV? Do they need to put the “M” back in MTV?

Music still plays a major part in MTV’s image and brand associations. Music and pop culture have always been interconnected, as many view the music that they listen to be how they express who they are as an individual. By having the same segments of people liking the same types of music, you can see the cliques within these segments, and usually these are how social trends begin. Although on a television station, music does not have the power to captivate viewers for prolonged periods of time; MTV found that long-form programming kept viewers tuned in on a regular basis, whereas music created grazing behaviors. Additionally, the channel viewers have changed therefore changing back to an all music channel I do not think would benefit the channel; viewers need to stay tuned in order for MTV to remain profitable and they are doing a good job of keeping their brand equity and associations.

4 – Discuss the role the Internet in programming. How should MTV best integrate the Internet into the brand? How might technology impact MTV’s future?

MTV’s websites serve as an added channel to keep viewers engaged beyond just watching the channel they can now watch TV episodes and have wallpapers etc. However, the internet could pose the problem as sites like YouTube, World Star Hip Hop, and a collection of others give viewers access to video on demand, (what they want to see and when they want to see it), as opposed to watching a channel and waiting to hopefully see a song or wait for a program to air. MTV should continue to use the Internet to its advantage by offering exclusive online clips, interviews, and MTV personalized gear.

They should continue to create apps and use Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram to connect to viewers. The MTV website already offers a variety of experiences to visitors and its greatest pull is that the brand owns the market as the resource for popular music. Drawing on that, and positioning the interactive aspect as a true storehouse for information is the most complementary stance MTVi (the interactive division of MTV) can take. With trendiness at its core, MTV will thrive as technology continues to change.

5 – How have MTV’s sister networks affected the parent channel’s brand equity? What changes, if any, would you make in positioning of the sister networks in order to create the optimal brand portfolio?

MTV has effectively used its sister networks and parent channels to boost brand equity. By playing more music clips and videos on the MTV2 and VH1 channels, it spreads the core values of the brand. MTV started and made its name by showing music videos, so having its sister channels show more videos it extends the brand image and values. MTV is a global brand and therefore reaches many different people from all around the world. This means that they have an extensive range of viewers that are from different places, cultures, nationalities, ethnicities, etc. MTV’s global channels offer country specific programming to appeal to the many different countries and cultural tastes. MTV is doing a good job of positioning itself and its sister channels for continued success in boosting brand equity.

MTV: Building Brand Resonance Essay

Old Spice Essay

Old Spice Essay.

This essay covers persuasive techniques used in the video commercial for Old Spice deodorant, as well as the messages that lie in the heart of the very commercial. The essay will try to explain the techniques and effects of persuasion on targeted audience, while at the same time referring to style and language. A great emphasis is put on humor, as it is the main technique of persuasion used in the very commercial. The commercial that is the subject of this work is Old Spice’s “The man your man could smell like” 33 second long video, which increased Old Spice sales as much as 106% at one point.

In order to explain and understand this phenomenon, attention should be drawn to persuasive techniques used by advertisers to subconsciously influence targeted audience, while analyzing main messages itself. First, let us take a look at the concept of the commercial itself. The product, Old Spice deodorant, is presented to the audience by a physically attractive, stereotypically masculine African American, the narrator and the only character in the commercial, stereotyped to the point of exaggeration.

Presented image leaves us with the idea of a parody.

The main character is addressing the audience in second person, leading them through the commercial. One of the most interesting things about his narration is that, although the product itself is aimed at men, the commercial is not directly addressed to them. The narrator speaks to women, which is undoubtedly one of the factors of the popularity of this commercial, as it gives an unexpected twist to it, taking into consideration the well-known fact that most commercials of this type feature a stereotypical macho model, who addresses that men should aspire to look and act like him.

By looking at some of the commercials of the type, especially at the older Old Spice commercials, a common persistent pattern can be noticed, which is now made fun of, the reason being the company’s attempt to try and abandon their outdated image. The narrator is, as mentioned before, an exaggeratedly stereotypical masculine persona, overly confident and arrogant to the degree that makes his personality unrealistic and humorous. He is trying to sell the product by selling himself, stating that any ordinary man could come at least close to what he was, just by using the same deodorant.

The unintentional humor comes from his exaggerated personality and randomness of the commercial’s plot. First, we see the man in the bathroom, three seconds later he is on a boat, holding an oyster containing two tickets, which are soon replaced by diamonds and at the very end, he is on a horse. What makes this concept interesting and humorous is that he keeps eye contact with the audience through every second of the commercial, while describing everything that he is doing and everything that is seen on the screen, thus stating the obvious.

The advertisement is not saying anything about the actual product, and is instead focused on selling the commercial rather than the product, which in this case is understandable as Old Spice is an established and popular brand. Advertisers count on the sense of humor of both men and women, whilst using an attractive man to occupy women’s attention. Targeted audience, as aforementioned, is the younger population of heterosexual men and women who share a particular sense of humour.

By using mockery and a sort of parodying of the commercial, mixing it with sex appeal and personality, advertisers have created a persuasive and informative advertisement that is not aimed at a broader audience, as the above mentioned factors, do not appeal to older generations. Having a particular sense of humor is crucial to understanding this commercial, as it would otherwise face the risk of being labeled derogatory and sexist. Advertisers have applied the “sex sells” rule of advertising on this commercial, with the change of men being objectified rather than women, and mixed it with humor in order to create a desirable effect.

Before turning to analysis of other techniques, it is important to mention the use of language and sentences as well, which cannot really be seen as a persuasive technique but is a powerful tool in manipulating audience. Sentences in the commercial are brief and straight to the point. The narrator is confident and he knows what he is talking about- no stops in between the sentences, no improvisation and no commas, which, aside with random images, helps to create the desirable dynamic effect.

Dynamic commercial embodies the dynamic lifestyle led by the targeted audience, which consists of young people who are always on the move and trying to keep up with the modern world. As for the style and tone of the author, it is important to mention that the narrator states his point of view up-front, the language is forceful and persuasive, making the narrator sound arrogant and powerful, even superior to the audience he is talking to.

He is even making fun of the audience, which is, however, not to be taken seriously, taking into account that the parodying tone is present from the very beginning and it is clear that the intention is to make fun of the male and female stereotypes, rather than the audience. After analyzing the messages, style, tone, and use of humor, an emphasis should be put on persuasive techniques, in order to understand the effect this commercial has on the audience. The second persuasive technique that can be read is “repetition”.

Even by inattentive listening to the commercial it is clear that some of the words and sentences are repeated in order to reinforce the main point. At the very beginning, the narrator draws women’s attention by inviting them to compare their man with him, by repeating repeatedly “back at your man, now back to me”. This technique is used to state the obvious, and is meant to be a certain “wake up call” to all the women whose boyfriends and husbands are not as attractive, wealthy, confident and manly as the narrator is.

Apart from “humor” and “repetition”, one of the persuasive techniques used in this commercial is “beautiful people”, an extremely common technique in ads that uses good looking models to attract attention of the viewers by implying that they will look like them if they use the product. In this instance, Isaiah Mustafa, an American actor, is used to draw the attention of female audience, by promising that their “man” would look like him if they used the product.

Somewhat connected to the mentioned “beautiful people” technique, is “snob appeal”, another technique that uses beautiful, confident models to suggest that “the use of the product makes the customer part of an elite group with a luxurious and glamorous lifestyle”. Not only the narrator in this commercial is attractive and confident, but he is also well dressed, wealthy and powerful, owning a boat and having the power to turn an oyster into diamonds, and is again implying that the use of the advertised product, Old Spice deodorant, made all the mentioned things possible.

All of the mentioned techniques- humor, repetition, beautiful people and snob appeal, are just some of the well-known, common techniques used by advertisers in order to trick the targeted audience into buying the advertised product. Behind the effect and success of those techniques lays the complex human psychology and the role of the subconscious, which the advertisers understand very well.

Most people never pay attention to the manipulation they are subdued to every day by consuming media, but the crude truth is that the manipulation is ever present- in advertising, media and political speeches. The success of the Old Spice commercial lays behind the canny techniques of persuasion used by the advertisers, and although the parodying in this case is not accepted by everybody, and there are people who argue that the commercial is derogatory and shallow, advertisers undoubtedly got what they wanted- popularity and publicity.

Old Spice Essay

Semiotic Analysis Essay

Semiotic Analysis Essay.

In modern western society, advertisements dominate our culture and consumer affairs. We are bombarded with thousands of advertisements everyday, which become a part of our everyday lives. Culture determines the taste of consumers, advertisements is a tool to sell products to the general public that were influenced by our cultural trends. This could be telling us how to feel, what to like and what to buy and fulfilling those cravings by presenting us a product. Everyone knows the saying ‘Sex Sells’.

Advertisers use this attribute and try to associate their products with sexual imagery hoping to get attachment to consumers subconscious mind.

I will approach this advertisement at the dominant level, meaning that the preferred reading of society conveys the dominant values of society (Joshi, February 29, 2012). In sexual oriented advertisements, today’s society objectify woman and use them as a tool to attract consumers. Since sexual oriented advertisements are considered patriarchal, I am going to perform a dominant reading of the society and argue that objectification of woman is taking place and are depicted as sexual oriented objects.

Structuralism is a theoretical method and a way of thinking about and acting in the world concerning with the perception, description, and manipulation of structures The social world has an underlying structure that can be revealed, one way to reveal this structure is by semiotics (Joshi, February 29, 2012). Semiotics is the study of signs that construct a meaning. A Swiss linguist, Ferdinand de Saussure first derived the theory of semiotics. Semiotic analysis was created to study communication and language.

Saussure introduced two concepts that signs must have, a signifier and a signified. The signifier is the physical form of the sign; it’s the component that delivers the message. The signified is the mental image associated or idea represented by the sign (Joshi, February 29, 2012). In addition, semiotics can be divided into two basic levels of analysis. First being diachronic, a macro level of analysis which looks at the arrangement of elements in a system at a single point in time. Second being synchronic, a micro level of analysis that examines the historical development of languages.

For the purpose of this semiotic analysis, I will be conducting a synchronic level of analysis because the advertisement comes out of magazine. Semiotic analysis was created to study communication and language. It has two different levels of classification, denotation and connotation. Denotation is the definitive/literal meaning of the sign. Roland Barthes, a cultural theorist, expanded the cultural theory of denotation by introducing the concept of connotation. Connotation is the secondary significance of a sign and is defined as personal or sociological associations of the sign.

In the denotative level, the primary signification is considered to be the literal or surface meaning of a sign (Joshi, February 29, 2012). In this advertisement, there are many signs available. As stated above these signs are made up of signifiers and the signified. The signs that are presented in this advertisement are all examples of iconic signs. Icons are is mode in which the signifier is perceived as resembling or imitating the signified (pictorial representations) (Joshi, February 29, 2012). This advertisement contains a sign that is presented of a woman licking an ice cream cone.

The signifier would be the letters that form the word. In this case it would be ‘w-o-m-a-n’ and the signified is an adult human female (New Oxford American Dictionary). The signifier for ‘ice cream’ would be ‘i-c-e c-r-e-a-m’. The signified for ice cream is a frozen food made with sweetened and flavored milk (New Oxford American Dictionary). Another sign would be the word ‘it’. The signifier would be the letters that form the word ‘it’, ‘i-t’. The signifier would be to emphasize or represent a thing in general (New Oxford Dictionary).

The sign, ‘eating’ has the signifiers of the letters that form the word, ‘e-a-t-i-n-g’. The signified would be to put something into the mouth and swallowing (New Oxford Dictionary). Lastly, the sign I want to present in this analysis is ‘only’. The signifier would be the letters that form the word, ‘o-n-l-y’. The signified would be no one or nothing more besides (New Oxford Dictionary). The connotative level is the secondary signification of the sign. It is a reflection of personal/symbolic preferences associated with the sign (Seale 273).

In the connotative level, the sign of ‘woman’ (from the primary signification, denotative level) now becomes the new signifier. It now has a new meaning attached to it. The new signified would be a Caucasian woman preforming a promiscuous act (oral sex). She is being objectified and is portrayed as a sexual object. The woman in this ad is used to attract men, and by buying this product and being clean, women are most likely to do to perform sexual acts for you. The sign of ‘ice cream’ is now the new signifier in the secondary level. The signified would be a phallic symbol.

The ice cream is white perceiving that it is vanilla flavored. In the connotative level, one can perceive this as a representation of semen or association of race they are trying to market too. The sign ‘it’ becomes the new signifier in the secondary level. The signified associated with this sign also produces the phallic symbol. In the advertisement, the word ‘it’ is mentioned many times. It is also underlined and italicized in the statement made by the advertisers (“Keep it clean”). This manipulates the representation of the word to change its reflective meaning, thus emphasizing its significance in the ad.

The sign ‘eating’ also becomes a signifier in the second level with the signified of performing oral sex. ‘Eating’ meaning putting something in your mouth and swallowing is perceived as a sexual act in this advertisement. The sign ‘only’ becomes a signifier in the secondary level and produces the signified of implying to perform oral sex. It is a reference to the other signs of ‘eating’ and ‘ice cream’; she is not ‘only’ eating an ice cream cone but also implying the performance of oral sex. It is a subliminal message that illustrates oral sex.

Semiotics has types of codes as long as they reveal the structures of society. They are associated with fields constituted of signs (Joshi, February 20, 2012). There are four different types of codes: cultural code, linguistic code, aesthetic code and narrative code. Cultural codes are based on the understanding social rules in behavior (Joshi, February 29, 2012). The cultural code that is reflected in this advertisement is woman and the subjectivity of sexuality. Women are thoroughly sexualized and are guilty of eroticized depictions.

Women are often presented as desirable commodities, often being recognized for their beauty rather than their intelligence – objects for pleasure. The sign of the woman is relevant when relating it to the cultural code. We see this through her body language and the representation of her hands. The way she is licking the ice cream cone and has her eyes closed presents a promiscuous message. The cultural reference of the ‘feminine touch’, the way she is delicately holding the ice cream cone conveys the idea of her holding a phallic object.

One is never seen eating an ice cream in this way. It is not normal. The women’s body language becomes the product. A way in which women are dehumanized in common mass media images – a product for male pleasure and consumption. Aesthetic codes are based on social conception of what is beautiful and pleasing to the senses (Joshi, February 29, 2012). Through aesthetic code, one can determine women’s role in advertisement and its relation to what is true to life. In reality it is common to see interracial couples but is a growing issue in society.

Interracial relationships are based on social acceptance and the fact that the woman in this advertisement is Caucasian is white and the ice cream cone (phallic symbol) is white, it shows a dominant view of our society. Advertising is commonly known for depicting couples of the same race, if one would change that (ice cream cone was a different colour), it might not be accepted widely through our society. Linguistic code is the deployment of words to generate a meaning (Joshi, February 29, 2012). It is the written messages that define and describe what is going on.

This advertisement contains many slogans and text that is used to subvert the normative deal. The first slogan is located at the top of the advertisement and states that, “This is simply a picture of a woman eating a vanilla ice cream cone”. The second slogan is located in the middle of the advertisement; it reads, “Sure she is attractive, sultry even. But she is only eating it because it tastes good and it is hot where she happens to be. ” Both of these sentences have deep connotative meanings behind them.

Most people will interpret the image as the woman performing oral sex, which contributes to the argument that women are seen as sexual objects, even though the sentence states the opposite. Narrative code is how the image tells a story (Joshi, February 29, 2012). The narrative code is about the positioning of the signs on the page. Since the picture of the woman eating the ice cream cone is the biggest sign and is in the middle of the advertisement, it tells the main story of the advertisement. The slogans on the advertisement are both above and below the image of the woman. This centralizes and brings more focus to the woman.

The actual picture of the product is on the bottom right corner of the ad. It’s a small picture of the product, this illustrates that the focus is more on the woman than the product itself. The woman’s beauty and sexualized image will sell the product. In conclusion, the advertisement objectifies woman and they are depicted as sexual oriented objects. In today’s society, advertisements representation reflects and reinforces the ideology of sexism in society. That woman becomes objects of consumption in advertising. We use women in a degrading way; we use them for their beauty and are constantly sexualized.

This advertisement shows exactly that. The representation of the phallic symbol and the meaning behind it depicts oral sex. Through denotative meaning it is clear that the meaning of the word is literal. Nonetheless, the connotative level shows the girl in the advertisement is being objectified and is portrayed as a sexual object. In todays society the depiction of woman in advertisement has become the norm. She is not shown using the product, however she is served only as a decorative symbol. It is proven that sex does sell and captures attention because it has become a part of human ideology.

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Semiotic Analysis Essay

Impact of Social Advertising in India Essay

Impact of Social Advertising in India Essay.

Social Advertising is the first form of advertising that systematically leverages historically “offline” dynamics, such as peer-pressure, friend recommendations, and other forms of social influence. Social media has the power to transform a campaign into a religion. Social Advertising is the media message designed to educate or motivate the Indians to engage in voluntarily social activities. Social media has great potential to influence all corners of the web. It enhances the advertisement useful for the readers and also satisfies the advertisers effectively by reaching the public.

This paper explores the impact of social Advertising in India by extracting the data from the public preferences on Social ads. From the collected data, it has been concluded that social ads in India has made incredible awareness and attracted the public towards it. This suggests that social advertising has a positive impact in India. Keywords: Media Message, Social Advertisement, Public preferences, Positive Impact.

INTRODUCTION:

Social Advertising deals with the matters of public interest such as social change, political ideas, economic policies, developmental programmes etc.

It is also known as ‘Public Service Advertising’ or ‘Social Advertising’. It promotes the community’s health and well being by ensuring the ads that educate people and create awarness about drugs, diseases and other social prime issues in the country. It is otherwise called as ‘non-product’ advertising also. It means advertising various ideas which are not directly for the promotion or sell of the products or commercial services. Advertisements has become important in today’s current scenario as an indicators for social and economic progress. They enhance the direction of change in our values. In fact, a country without advertisements is inconceivable.

Advertising is a medium of mass education and therefore the role it plays should be taken seriously. Advertisers sponsor through cultural, social, sports or other activities or organized programmes related to health, hygiene or education including literacy by free distribution of booklets or other reading material. Free health check up camps also organized in villages by big industries or public sectors. Advertising is made by the advertisers in newspapers, on bill boards, and in the form of short advertisements on television.

It creates a awareness about the democratic right of a common man. Social Advertisements operates the corporate social responsibility. The big advertising agencies which are awarded for social services also create advertisement and produce by themselves. It also produce for the Government and their own organization with no profit and no loss basis. Thus, the advertisers in India started to contribute to the development and welfare of the society, but still it has to develop in a long way. Advertising ideas, such as, reduce traffic congestion, improve health, conserve natural resources, plan families, educate girls, increase marriage age etc. serve basic social and economic needs.

In India social advertising is in infancy stage. The social and economic welfare of a nation can be mainly attained when harmonious effort of Advertising is reached to the citizens by visualizing them the beneficiary and urge about the social ads. The image of ads are promoted in the public service advertising. Certain campaigns are arranged to promote the Social advertising in India. In India, the social ads are enhanced by popular celebrities. The people in rural areas get attracted more through the ads. They willingly engage these ads in their life and attain benefit out of it. For instance, Amitabh Bachchan come for polio immunisation ads.

By viewing this more families take interest in it. According to the AdEx report of 2007, it was found that many of the social ads are promoted by Amitabh Bachchan mainly concentrating on the “Health Awareness”. Advertising agencies have stated that organisations which are heavily contributing in social advertising, spend minimum of 5 crores in print Advertising. The non-metro city newspapers garnering 56 per cent of the overall social ads. Government organisations as well as NGOs have increased the expenses by 30 per cent over the last ten years owing to the growing economy.

This ads create a huge impact on the mass audiences of India. For example, the Tata Tea “Jaago re” campaign which was aimed at making people aware about exercising right to vote was well received by viewers. In the commercial industry, they talks about individuals needing to broaden with changing times. It shows two friends sitting in a restraunt and one of them tells the other friend to have a look at the gay couple on the other table. So his friend picks up a rolled newspaper and taps him on his head and continues to have his lunch. A punch line then props up saying “it is time to open our minds”. The above few ads creates awareness to both literate and illiterate citizens in India.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

A review literature can be interpreted as review of an abstract accomplishment. Different authors have pointed out their view of social advertising. It will analyze with the present condition of social advertising. The literature will be in the form of thesis, researchers, academic studies. Srivastava, Vibhava ; Nandan, Tanuj (Jan-Mar 2010) states that advertising plays a significant role in the society. It is stated that it is unethical if the norms and values changes due to the advertising. Ciochetto, L (Nov 2009) describes that before the printing advertising was dominating the industry. But now the social advertising has been dominated by foreign companies and the ads have become more indianised and customized.

This has changed the life of middle group and also the rural citizens. The strategy adopted have changed the social and cultural changes. Srivastava, Rajesh Kumar (2010) describes the effectiveness of advertising globally and it also says whether the age, gender, education, religion. The study was made among 1000 respondents. It is limited to India and SARC countries. In overall it says about the persuasion of people for advertsing. Stelios C. Zyglidopoulos; Craig E. Carroll; Andreas Georgiadis describes about the impact of media attention on a firm’s CSR “strengths” and “weaknesses.”

Drawing on social and organizational identity and stakeholder theory literatures, we develop and test two hypotheses concerning the influence that media attention has on these aspects of CSR. We find that increases in media attention are associated with increases in CSR strengths, but not with CSR weaknesses. Anita Pansari( February 19, 2011 ) has finded that women are dependent in India. They are used for the television ads. Finally she concluded by saying that Asian countries curtural values are not changed like the other nation. Hence Ansian womens are different from the parts of the world.

Eric A. Feldman ; Ronald Bayer (Dec 2011) states that the tobacco consumption is injurious to health. Through advertising the rate of tobacco consumption has reduced in the developed countries. Likewise in India also it will have an positive impact on social advertising. Agarwal.A (july 1995) enhance about the awareness of health care social ads in the region of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh for nearly 28 villages. This study has founded that the exposure of mass media may not be suited without formal and informal systems in the community which can promote health hazards in rural India. Vaidya, S.G., Vaidya, J.S., Naik, U.D (Sep 1999) has evaluated and finded that due to the advertisement for Wills during the series of match had created a negative impact on the youngsters.

The ads should not spoil the young lives which may become a major drawback in the future in India. Goenka, S.a, Prabhakaran, D.a, Ajay, V.S.a, Reddy, K.S.b (Aug 2009) describes about the cardiovascular disease and it can affect the population. This can be reduced bt avoiding tobacco . The comprehensive measures for effective prevention of CVD in India are national health imperatives which require multisectoral, multi-level and multi-disciplinary co-ordination and action.

CONCLUSION:

Social Advertising in India has been growing and it has a greater positive impact on it. It helps all the communities people, rural or urban citizens to attain a worth and useful messages for their better way of living without harmful. It is applicable for both the environment in which the people belongs to and also to the society. Advertising creates awareness to the younger generations who may spoil their lives without knowing the importance of it. The social utility of advertising is to inform society of the existence of products and services which may (or may not) improve the lives of the individuals within that society. Consumers are gaining control over the advertisers, so the advertising companies need to change their strategies.

Now regarding the present issue of Assam, it has been stated that due to social network and ads, the information passes very easily to everybody from which they take advantage to misuse it. This may be an disadvantage of social advertising. Social Advertising helps through its network by connecting the people in India. From the study we wanted to conclude that nearly 20% of demerits is there in social advertising and 80% benefit we people attain from it. Hence, In India it has a greater positive impact on “Social Advertising”

REFERENCES:

Ciochetto, L (November 2009); Advertising in contemporary India’s rapidly changing media environment ;Media International Australia; Issue 133, Pages 120-129; College of Creative Arts Massey University, New Zealand. Srivastava, Vibhava ; Nandan, Tanuj (Jan-Mar 2010): 61-69; A Study of Perceptions in Society Regarding Unethical Practices in Advertising; South Asian Journal of Management 17.1. Srivastava, Rajesh Kumar; (2010); Effectiveness of global advertisement on culture of India: an emerging market; International Journal of Emerging Markets 5.1; 102-113. Stelios C. Zyglidopoulos; Craig E. Carroll; Andreas Georgiadis( October 24, 2010); Does Media attention drive corporate social responsibility; University of Cambridge – Judge Business School; University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill; London School of Economics & Political Science (LSE). Anita Pansari( February 19, 2011 ); A Comparative Analysis of the Roles Portrayed by Women in Indian Television Advertisement; 1980-2009; Icfai Business School. Eric A. Feldman ; Ronald Bayer (Dec 2011); The Triumph and Tragedy of Tobacco Control: A Tale of Nine Nations; Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Vol. 7, pp. 79-100, 2011.

Agarwal.A ;(July 1995); Psychology and developing societies; Mass media and health promotion in Indian villages; Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 217-236. Vaidya, S.G., Vaidya, J.S., Naik, U.D;(Sep 1999); Sports sponsorship by cigarette companies influences the adolescent children’s mind and helps initiate smoking: results of a national study in India. National Organisation for Tobacco Eradication (NOTE), India; Journal of the Indian Medical Association; Volume 97, Issue 9, Pages 354-356, 359. Goenka, S.a,
Prabhakaran, D.a, Ajay, V.S.a, Reddy, K.S.b (Aug 2009); Preventing cardiovascular disease in India-translating evidence to action; a) Initiative for Cardiovascular, Health Research in the Developing Countries, New Delhi 110 016, India.b) Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi 110 016, India; Volume 97, Issue 3, Pages 367-377.

Impact of Social Advertising in India Essay

Celebrity Endorsement in India Essay

Celebrity Endorsement in India Essay.

In India, celebrities are idolized as Gods and marketers have been trying their best to tap on this emotional connect of the people with the celebrities. Today, most of the popular brands are being endorsed by a famous personality either from entertainment industry or sports arena. Strategic brand positioning and effective communication are the keys to success in today’s market where many brands compete in the same category for the market share. Companies are employing their maximum might to promote their brands and occupy a long lasting image in the minds of the consumers.

In India, television is the most popular and effective means of the mass communication. There are over three million television commercials being aired every year. However, 80 percent of them are forgotten by the people in a day or two.

So, it is imperative for the marketers to ensure that their ad campaign stands out amongst the crowd (Suhalka, n.d.). Since advertising is a highly critical tool for luring customers to make purchases, Indian firms are investing millions of rupees on celebrity advertising (Khatri, 2006).

Celebrity endorsements are also an easy option for Indian marketers because of the disparities of the Indian consumer base in terms of religion, ethinicity, value system and most importantly economic variations. Therefore, advertisers in India emphasis a lot on brand recall and customer persuasion for differentiating their ad campaigns from those of the counterparts. It is here that celebrity endorsement provides a tremendous boost (Surana, 2008). For instance, one of the strongest celebrity endorser is cricketer Sachin Tendulkar who is a youth icon and endorses many successful brands like, Pepsi, Boost, Aviva Life Insurance, TVS, Britannia Biscuits, Visa, Airtel etc. Like, Shahrukh Khan, Amitabh Bachchan, Kareena Kapoor also have many brands in their kitties.

Indians love their celebrities and blindly follow their suit. This has proved to be a boon for the marketers and celebrity endorsement is just getting better by the day. It has now become an indispensible part of the marketing communication strategy. It is a win ?win situation for both the celebrities and the brands. However, the consumers are ones who are least benefitted as they end up paying more for the products and services.

References:

• Khatri, P., 2006. Celebrity Endorsement: A Strategic Promotion Perspective. Indian Media Studies Journal, 1(1).Pp. 25-37 • Suhalka,G.n.d. Celebrity Endorsers and Endorsements in India- The Rise and the Impact [pdf] Available at: http://www.ndtvmi.com/b4/dopesheets/garima.pdf [Accessed 18 February 2012] • Surana,R., 2008. The Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement in India [pdf] Available at: http://edissertations.nottingham.ac.uk/2069/1/08MAlixrs13.pdf [Accessed 18 February 2012]

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Celebrity Endorsement in India Essay

Aquarius Case Analysis Essay

Aquarius Case Analysis Essay.

1) Analyze Aquarius in terms of the five contextual variables: * Goals: Aquarius has realized a huge problem in regards to the rapid turnover of their major accounts. An agency reorganization would be a realistic goal in changing their competitive techniques. This reorganization might be able to set them apart from the other agencies by reducing their response time and increasing the communication between the different departments to boost efficiency. * Culture: In my opinion I believe that Aquarius has a very low and undefined organizational culture.

It seems like the employees are all looking out for themselves and trying to get ahead of everyone else. These values although unwritten provide the glue to having everyone on the same page and are absolutely essential in providing clients with top of the line work. * Size: Since Aquarius is a mid-sized firm with various specialists on the professional staff of the operations and marketing divisions I would say they have anywhere from 1000-1500 employees. With this many employees it is critical to have effective communication between the different departments.

This would in turn increase flexibility in this unpredictable environment.

* Environment: Changes in the environment is the main reason why the agency is considering the need for reorganization. It is typical for advertising agencies to gain/lose clients quickly, this is why is it so essential to have everyone in the organization effectively communicating with each other in order to satisfy their clients and reduce turnover. * Technology: Aquarius has a number of different specialists on their team that work together in assisting their clients, but there is always room for improvement in regards to better communication. It would seem to me that Aquarius would have a number of different programs and internet sites to assist them achieving their services.

2) A new organizational structure that takes into consideration the contextual variables in the case and the information flows is the divisional structure. This structure is suited to fast change in an unstable environment and provides high product or service visibility. A major problem that occurs in Aquarius is that each client account is coordinated by an account executive who acts as a liaison between the client and various specialists. Unfortunately this isn’t followed because sometimes the account executives don’t even know what is going on until a week later.

The divisional structure leads to customer satisfaction because product responsibility and contact points are clear. This in turn involves high coordination across functions which will make everyone check with the executive first to get approval before contacting the client. Coordination across functions will allow their services to adapt to the requirements of the individual clients and perform beyond their expectations. This structure would allow Aquarius to achieve their goals while increasing their organizational culture as a whole and being able to adapt more quickly to this unstable environment.

3) Would a matrix structure be feasible for Aquarius? I my opinion I believe that a balanced matrix structure would be hard to implement and maintain. This is due to the fact that account executives as one side of the authority structure would often dominate over the specialists. In order for the account executive to do their job correctly they need everyone on their side and in coordination to run important information by them first.

Perhaps a better alternative would be a product matrix where the executives have primary authority and the specialists assign technical personal to the projects and provide advisory expertise as needed. With dual authority I feel that it would be frustrating and confusing for everyone, there needs to be a clear contact points. There would always be a need for frequent meetings to resolve any conflicts between the different authorities, it would simply just require to great of an effort to maintain the power balance.

Aquarius Case Analysis Essay